Author Tan, Yueling
Title Interrelationships between parenting styles, self-compassion and emotional intelligence in youths
Institute Thesis (M.A.) (Applied Psychology) National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University
Year 2015
Supervisor Chong, Wan Har; Chua, Bee Leng

This study has two purposes: (1) to investigate the interrelationships between parenting styles, self-compassion and emotional intelligence, and (2) to demonstrate the effects of parenting styles on the self-compassion and emotional intelligence of local adolescents. Research has found that self-compassion and emotional intelligence were associated with many positive life outcomes but insufficient research is available to inform the conditions required for the development of these two positive traits.

The participants of this study were 585 adolescents aged between 12 and 18, from two mainstream secondary schools. A questionnaire which included the 30-item Adolescent Short Form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the 30-item Asian version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale were completed by the participants.

Results indicated that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were positively correlated with self-compassion and emotional intelligence, while authoritarian parenting style was negatively correlated with the same constructs. After controlling gender, regression analyses revealed that authoritative parenting style predicted higher self-compassion, emotional intelligence and their positive subcomponents (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness). In contrast, authoritarian parenting style predicted lower self-compassion, emotional intelligence, well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, and higher self-judgment, isolation and over-identification. There were also evidences that while fathers' impact on positive developmental outcomes is not as much as mothers, their influence on negative developmental outcomes are more observable when they adopt the authoritarian parenting style. These findings suggest that both parents play essential roles in enhancing their children's development.