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#### The development of early arithmetic skills: What, when, and how?

2022, Cheung, Pierina, Munez, David, Ng, Ee Lynn, Khng, Kiat Hui, Bull, Rebecca

Arithmetic skills – the ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide – are the building blocks of mathematics. Poor arithmetic skills can lead to poor job prospects and life outcomes. It is thus important to investigate the development of arithmetic skills. What constitute the foundations for arithmetic skills? When do they develop? Previous studies have highlighted the importance of the toddler and preschool period as providing foundations for later math learning. In this chapter, we provide an overview of key factors across domain-specific and domain-general areas that support the development of arithmetic skills. We then draw on existing data from the Singapore Kindergarten Impact Project (SKIP) and describe the performance of basic numeracy skills at entry to kindergarten that are relevant for arithmetic learning. These skills include counting, informal arithmetic, and the reading and writing of Arabic digits. Finally, we conclude with guidelines for promoting the development of early mathematical knowledge in the classroom and at home.

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#### Cultural variability in finger representations / Variabilidad cultural en las representaciones con dedos

2024, Sanchez, Maria Rosario, Munez, David, Matilla, Laura, Orrantia, Josetxu

Finger representations are used to count or show quantities. How fingers are lifted to count and the type of representation that we use to communicate quantities have been the focus of studies that have aimed at providing evidence of dominant patterns across cultures. In the current study, we go beyond those studies and investigate intracultural variability. Specifically, whether finger counting habits and finger montring patterns are similar in children and adults. To this aim, a total of 3,210 Spaniard participants took part in this study (637 children and 2,573 adults). All of them were assessed regarding handedness, the way in which they counted with their fingers from 1 to 10 (finger counting) and how they show quantities with their fingers (finger montring). The results showed certain consistency; however, there was substantial variability within each group. Findings are interpreted within the context of current theories reinforcing the relevance of finger patterns to support the understanding of the meaning of numbers.

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