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  • Publication
    Metadata only
    The development of early arithmetic skills: What, when, and how?
    Arithmetic skills – the ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide – are the building blocks of mathematics. Poor arithmetic skills can lead to poor job prospects and life outcomes. It is thus important to investigate the development of arithmetic skills. What constitute the foundations for arithmetic skills? When do they develop? Previous studies have highlighted the importance of the toddler and preschool period as providing foundations for later math learning. In this chapter, we provide an overview of key factors across domain-specific and domain-general areas that support the development of arithmetic skills. We then draw on existing data from the Singapore Kindergarten Impact Project (SKIP) and describe the performance of basic numeracy skills at entry to kindergarten that are relevant for arithmetic learning. These skills include counting, informal arithmetic, and the reading and writing of Arabic digits. Finally, we conclude with guidelines for promoting the development of early mathematical knowledge in the classroom and at home.
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  • Publication
    Open Access
    Numeral order and the operationalization of the numerical system
    (2021) ;
    Orrantia, Josetxu
    ;
    Matilla, Laura
    ;
    Sanchez, Maria Rosario
    Recent years have witnessed an increase in research on how numeral ordering skills relate to children’s and adults’ mathematics achievement both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Nonetheless, it remains unknown which core competency numeral ordering tasks measure, which cognitive mechanisms underlie performance on these tasks, and why numeral ordering skills relate to arithmetic and math achievement. In the current study, we focused on the processes underlying decision-making in the numeral order judgement task with triplets to investigate these questions. A drift-diffusion model for two-choice decisions was fit to data from 97 undergraduates. Findings aligned with the hypothesis that numeral ordering skills reflected the operationalization of the numerical system, where small numbers provide more evidence of an ordered response than large numbers. Furthermore, the pattern of findings suggested that arithmetic achievement was associated with the accuracy of the ordinal representations of numbers.
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