Teo Tang Wee
- PublicationOpen AccessAssessing lower track students’ learning in science inference skills in SingaporeIt is a generally held view amongst educators today that the development of students’ inference skills is an important aspect in their education as 21st Century learners as it requires higher order cognitive competences. Oftentimes, students in the lower tracks are considered slower learners and may have difficulties with the development of such skills. There is, however, limited empirical evidence to support such claims. As a result, there is a lack of understanding how such skills are taught, and how lower track students acquire them. The purpose of this study is to investigate lower track students’ science inference skills over one academic year, to better understand their learning and development. To determine this, three multiple-choice science inference skills tests were developed based on science syllabus and administered over a 9-month period. In total, 1397 Grade 7 lower track (i.e., Normal Academic) students from 38 Singapore secondary schools participated in the study. The students’ performances were determined through three equated tests using Rasch common-item procedures. The results showed that students experienced greater difficulty with tests over time. They particularly had difficulties with questions pertinent to graphs, tables, diagrams, or charts, or required them to extend their thinking beyond the given information. They also had difficulty in deducing answers using the elimination technique, and items that involved experiments and variables. Items that involved pattern recognition, concluding using range, application of a given concept, and limited information were easier for them. The findings also have implications for science teacher education in terms of assessment literacy, and the science teaching of lower track students.
Scopus© Citations 6 118 128
- PublicationOpen AccessMyths about NA/NT students science inference skills: competencies and predictors(National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2018)
- PublicationOpen AccessEmbracing inclusivity through pedagogical practices: Case studies from Singapore science lessons(2021)
;Pua, Ching YeeThis paper examines the pedagogical practices in three case studies of elementary science lessons that took place in classrooms or laboratories to make connections to the discourse about inclusivity in science teaching. Using the Singapore Teaching Practice as a reference, we analyzed the pedagogical practices enacted during three lessons where specific intervention strategies were undertaken during the lessons to address the needs of students with dyslexia. Using event-oriented inquiry, nine (including one emergent) pedagogical practices were adapted by the science teachers. The findings also suggested differences in the outcomes from enacting the same pedagogical practices in different teaching situations. This study contributes to the literature by offering a situated definition of ‘pedagogical practices’, a dynamic construct in the existing literature, in the context of inclusive education. Suggestions on ways to adapt the nine pedagogical practices to enhance the reflexivity of teachers in inclusive science teaching are offered. 137 393
- PublicationOpen AccessEnabling classroom change by infusing cogen and coteaching in participatory action researchParticipatory action research is an empowering approach to advance research with participants. This paper describes and discusses the process and outcomes in engaging cogenerative dialogue (cogen) and coteaching in participatory action research (PAR) to support science curriculum change in a Singapore lower track classroom. The intervention was introduced after researching in a science teacher’s two lower tracker classrooms for about 18 months and observing that his lessons were teacher-centered and he experienced difficulty engaging the students. Using the empirical findings to inform teaching practice, the researchers engaged the science teacher and two selected students in two cogen sessions to identify issues with the science lessons. The students suggested solutions which were taken up and used to plan and design revised lessons co-taught by the science teacher and one researcher. This paper describes changes to the teacher’s and researcher’s teaching, learning, and research experiences through the lens of cogen and PAR. Transcripts from one cogen session, one cotaught lesson, one teacher interview, and one researcher’s written reflections were analyzed to distil affordances of PAR that led to changes in the classroom practices, views about science teaching and ways to carry out science research. The study illuminates the potentially transformative role of cogen, when coupled with action research, in Singapore and other classrooms.
Scopus© Citations 4 216 106
- PublicationOpen AccessIntegrating artificial intelligence into science lessons: Teachers’ experiences and views
In the midst of digital transformation, schools are transforming their classrooms as they prepare students for a world increasingly automated by new technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI). During curricular implementation, it has not made sense to teachers to teach AI as a stand-alone subject as it is not a traditional discipline in schools. As such, subject matter teachers may need to take on the responsibility of integrating AI content into discipline-based lessons to help students make connections and see its relevance rather than present AI as separate content. This paper reports on a study that piloted a new lesson package in science classrooms to introduce students to the idea of AI. Specifically, the AI-integrated science lesson package, designed by the research team, provided an extended activity that used the same context as an existing lesson activity. Three science teachers from different schools piloted the lesson package with small groups of students and provided feedback on the materials and implementation.
The findings revealed the teachers’ perceptions of integrating AI into science lessons in terms of the connection between AI and science, challenges when implementing the AI lesson package and recommendations on improvements. First, the teachers perceived that AI and science have similarities in developing accurate models with quality data and using simplified reasoning, while they thought that AI and science play complementary roles when solving scientific problems. Second, the teachers thought that the biggest challenge in implementing the lesson package was a lack of confidence in content mastery, while the package would be challenging to get buy-in from teachers regarding curriculum adaptation and targeting the appropriate audience. Considering these challenges, they recommended that comprehensive AI resources be provided to teachers, while this package can be employed for science enrichment programs after-school.
The study has implications for curriculum writers who design lesson packages that introduce AI in science classrooms and for science teachers who wish to contribute to the development of AI literacy for teachers and the extension of the range of school science and STEM to students.
- PublicationOpen AccessTransitions from presence, belonging to engaged participation in an inclusive classroom: An eye-tracking study(2022)
;Pua, Ching YeeWhile many studies about special education needs (SEN) have discussed inclusive efforts in educational settings, more proximal research examining ways to support students with SEN in-process to achieve is needed. This study discussed proximal data, collected from eye trackers and lesson videos, showing how students with SEN transit between the state of presence, belonging, and engaged participation in an inclusive classroom. Using an eye tracking case study of an inclusive science classroom, with a focus on how science teachers support students with dyslexia to learn science, we unpacked how the teacher supported students through such a transformative experience. We characterised the transitions and examined how these transitions happen and found that the transitions were non-unidirectional and could be prematurely truncated due to a change in the teacher’s eye gaze. Some students might not move to the state of engaged participation during a lesson. These transitions were facilitated by the teaching practices. Implications for teachers of inclusive classrooms and research in inclusive classrooms were discussed. 30 4
- PublicationOpen AccessHow flip teaching supports undergraduate chemistry laboratory learningIn this paper, we define flip teaching as a curricular platform that uses various strategies, tools, and pedagogies to engage learners in self-directed learning outside the classroom before face-to-face meetings with teachers in the classroom. With this understanding, we adopted flip teaching in the design and enactment of one Year 1 and one Year 2 undergraduate chemistry laboratory session at a higher education institution. The undergraduates viewed videos demonstrating the practical procedures and answered pre-laboratory questions posted on the institution's mobile device application before the laboratory lessons. Analyses of the lesson videos, interviews with the undergraduates and instructors, and undergraduate artefacts showed that the undergraduates had developed a better understanding of the theory undergirding the procedures before they performed the practical, and were able to decipher the complex practical procedures. They also experienced less anxiety about the complex practical steps and setup, and subsequently, improved work efficiency. The findings of this study have implications for chemistry educators looking for ways to improve on the design and enactment of the laboratory curriculum to enhance the undergraduates' self-directed learning.
Scopus© Citations 82 359 159WOS© Citations 89
- PublicationOpen AccessInvestigating the instructional leadership of STEM educators in Thailand(2022)
; ;Faikhamta, ChatreeLau, Marcus Shao YuThis article reports on the survey findings of a study on the STEM leadership of 134 STEM middle school educators (118 teachers and 16 principals) in Thailand who led in STEM curriculum writing and teaching in their schools. The data were analysed using Rasch analysis of three constructs, namely, their views about STEM teaching, STEM capital and self-empowerment to teach STEM lessons. The findings showed that the educators generally responded positively to the three constructs. They thought that STEM should be integrated and could potentially stand alone as an independent discipline. The teachers wished for more resources and had the support of colleagues. The teachers lacked confidence in STEM teaching. Implications for specific areas of support, especially the forming of STEM professional learning communities to support the teachers, are suggested. 80
- PublicationOpen AccessThe S‑T‑E‑M QuartetThe issue of integrated STEM curriculum design and evaluation requires a more consistent understanding and clarity among STEM educators. In this paper, we propose an instructional framework of STEM integration based on the theoretical notions of disciplinarity and problem-centred learning. The proposed S-T-E-M Quartet instructional framework utilises complex, persistent and extended problems at its core, and the problem solving process as the overarching frame. The key difference between the proposed S-T-E-M Quartet instructional framework and models such as the STEM road map and the Cubic model for STEAM education is the emphasis on the connections between different disciplines. Similar to the STEM road map, the application of the S-T-E-M Quartet framework begins with a single lead discipline as the focus and subsequently examines how knowledge and skills of the lead discipline are connected and related to the other three disciplines. As an instructional framework, the S-T-E-M Quartet requires description of learning outcomes for each discipline when students work with the problem. The learning outcomes within individual disciplines constitute the vertical learning within a discipline. Depending on the problem described, the learning outcomes for some disciplines might be more in-depth than others. As the S-T-E-M Quartet foregrounds connections between disciplines, attention is also paid to the strength of connections, whether they are weak, moderate or strong. A case example of application of the S-T-E-M Quartet instructional framework is presented as an illustration of how the S-T-E-M Quartet instructional framework can be used to design and reflect on STEM tasks.
- PublicationOpen AccessFrom problem-centric to design-centric STEM inquiry: Affordances and limitations(2023)
; ;Tan, Kelvin Yong LengNeo, MelissaMost STEM curricula focus on problem-solving an authentic issue. However, design-centric STEM curricula have been addressed to a lesser extent. This article reports on findings from a case study on a group of students that have conducted a STEM inquiry project to problem-solve an authentic issue. The STEM inquiry transition to design-centric STEM was organically derived from the interactions between the teacher and students. Qualitative data analysis of the students’ interviews, written reports and reflections was conducted using a prescriptive list of codes that categorises different types of knowledge in 21st century learning. The findings showed students’ content, meta, and humanistic learning outcomes during problem-centric inquiry, and other humanistic outcomes during design-centric inquiry. Implications on integrated STEM curriculum design and contributions to the STEM education literature on the potential diverse affordances of different centricities of STEM curriculum are discussed. 14 42