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# Toh, Tin Lam

#### Use of dynamic geometry software in the teaching of matrix and transformation: An exemplar of a classroom enactment

2023, Toh, Tin Lam, Chen, Kexin, Zhu, Tianming

Purpose and Research Question - In this paper, we propose a SCCG framework for using a dynamic geometry software (DGS) to enact a lesson on “Matrix and Transformation” based on intuitive-experimental approach. Methodology - A systematic literature review was conducted focusing on the impact of DGS on students’ learning, drawing on various learning theories, including Skemp’s relational understanding, social dimensional constructivism, and discovery learning. Findings - We demonstrate with an exemplar the use of SC2G framework in designing one lesson on “Matrix and Reflection” for senior high school students.

#### Using comics to contextualise the teaching of percentages: An adaptation of a comics-based teaching package for primary school mathematics classrooms

2022, Toh, Tin Lam, Cheng, Lu Pien

In this article, an adaptation of a secondary school mathematics comics-based instructional package for primary school mathematics classroom, and the teachers' and students' perceptions about the use of comics in the classroom are discussed. Further suggestions by the teachers on fine-tuning the package are also discussed.

#### How formal should calculus in the school mathematics curriculum be: Reflections arising from an error in a calculus examination question

2023, Toh, Tin Lam, Toh, Pee Choon, Tay, Eng Guan, Teo, Kok Ming, Lee, Henry

This paper examines the calculus curriculum in the current Singapore secondary and pre-university levels. Two concepts, (1) increasing and decreasing functions and their derivatives, and (2) the second derivative test for the nature of stationary points, are elaborated. An example of an incorrect calculus item in a national examination is brought up in relation to conditional reasoning involving calculus concepts. We reckon that the current emphasis on procedural knowledge in calculus is useful. However, we argue that formal conditional reasoning should not be introduced prematurely for school students.

#### Using comics to engage students in meaningful learning

2020, Cheng, Lu Pien, Toh, Tin Lam, Lim, Lee Hean, Lim, Kam Ming

#### Principles in using comics for mathematics classroom instruction

2024, Toh, Tin Lam

Mathematics has always been a difficult subject for many students. Consequently, many students fear the subject and refuse to engage in this subject. There are many educational theories which attempt to address students’ motivational and cognitive issues in learning mathematics. In this lecture, I attempt to propose an alternative approach of teaching mathematics through the use of comics based on my experience of infusing comics into the teaching of mathematics for the low progress learners. I further present a framework of infusing comics for mathematics instructions, and take reference from not only educational theories but also from the perspective of communication theory. In designing lessons using comics, I make reference to how the various elements of the communication model are taken into consideration in the design process. I illustrate the application of this framework with the use of exemplars, making reference from both primary and secondary levels. With the advent of Generative Artificial Intelligence, what appears to be a rather expensive process of developing comics package could potentially become relatively inexpensive, so that educators and designers could invest more time in conceptualizing the content of the comics package. Thus, the theoretical framework for the design process deserves greater attention to researchers and educators.

#### The use of mathematics competition questions for mainstream primary mathematics classroom instruction

2024, Lim, Clara Ying Yi, Toh, Tin Lam

Mathematics competition questions can have a wider use in the mainstream mathematics classroom instructions beyond the rather restrictive mathematics competition environment. Efforts have been taken by the education community to popularize mathematics by utilizing these questions for the general student population. However, most of the work cited were mainly adapting or modifying competition questions for mathematics instruction at the secondary level. In this paper, we propose with two exemplars how selected mathematics competition questions can provide the affordance to engage the general primary school student population in the problem solving processes.

#### On using geometer’s sketchpad to teach relative velocity

2003, Toh, Tin Lam

#### Mathematics education in Singapore

2015, Kaur, Berinderjeet, Wong, Khoon Yoong, Tay, Eng Guan, Toh, Tin Lam, Lee, Ngan Hoe, Ng, Swee Fong, Dindyal, Jaguthsing, Yen, Yeen Peng, Loh, Mei Yoke, Tan, June Hwee Chiat, Tan, Lay Chin

Mathematics education in Singapore is a shared responsibility of the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the National Institute of Education (NIE) . The MOE overseas the intended, implemented and attained curriculum in all schools while the NIE is involved in teacher preparation and development and also research in mathematics education. Therefore this report has two sections respectively , the first describes the education system and school mathematics curricula while the second briefly provides relevant information on teacher preparation and development and mathematics education research in Singapore.

#### Use of comics in teaching mathematics

2018, Toh, Tin Lam, Cheng, Lu Pien, Jiang, Heng, Lim, Kam Ming

#### Fallacies about the derivative of the trigonometric sine function

2021, Toh, Tin Lam, Tay, Eng Guan, Tong, Cherng Luen

In this paper, several fallacies about the extension of the formula \frac{d}{dx} (\sin x) = \cos x to the erroneous formula \frac{d}{dx} (\sin x^\circ) = \cos x^\circ are discussed. In a Commognitive Theory Framework, misconceptions by ‘newcomers’ can be traced to the use of the word “unit”.