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Zhang, Y. (1999). Thinking steps: Moving out of a delegation dilemma. In M. Waas (Ed.), Enhancing learning: Challenge of integrating thinking and information technology into the curriculum: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Educational Research Association ( pp. 895-901). Singapore: Educational Research Association.
Although delegation is a much-talked-about topic among researchers and school
administrators, many people, especially those who are newly appointed to assume positions,
realize that they are in a delegation dilemma- while they feel it necessary to delegate some
of their jobs to their subordinates, either to free themselves so that they can concentrate on
more important things, or to develop their staff, they hesitate, and even find it difficult, to
Based on discussions with a large number of middle managers in schools who are Heads of
Departments (HOD), Subject Heads (SH) and Level Heads (LH), and on the understanding of
the situations they are in, this paper offers a delegation chart containing thinking steps to
guide middle managers when they figure out how to step out of the delegation dilemma they
are in, and how to do effective delegation. Embracing three categories of purposes of
delegation, the chart presents 1) three essential steps of preparing for delegation; 2) three
factors affecting selection of subordinates; and 3) four skills in making the assignment.
This paper was published in the 1999 Proceedings of the ERA Annual Conference held at Plaza Parkroyal Hotel, Singapore from 23-25 November 1998
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