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Aplin, N., & Saunders, J. E. (1993, September). Matching learning environments and culture: Individualism/collectivism and the case of sport and physical education. Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Conference of the Educational Research Association, Singapore.
This paper is derived from a larger study concerned with the socio-cultural environment of sport and physical education programmes in Singapore. The data reported here examine the dimension of Individualism/Collectivism (I C), which has been identified as a relevant facet of national culture (Hofstede, 1980). Evidence tends to suggest that Individualism correlates significantly with success in high level sporting contexts. On the other hand, Singaporean values are more usually associated with the concept of Collectivism. The degree of match and dissonance between the national culture and the psycho-social environment of international sport is seen as offering a powerful explanation for the status and relative success of various sport and physical activity programmes. The paper concludes with the identification of some implications for more effective curriculum development in sport and physical education programmes and suggestions for future research.
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