Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scale development and validation
Factor analysis
Psychological empowerment
School leader empowering behaviours
Singapore context
Issue Date: 
Lee, A. N., & Nie, Y. (2013). Development and validation of the School Leader Empowering Behaviours (SLEB) scale. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 485-495.
Despite a growing interest in using empowerment as a leadership strategy to enhance
teachers’ work motivation to play a more central role in educational change, there is still
limited research on how leaders in school organisations empower teachers. One possible
reason might be due to the lack of relevant measures for assessing empowering behaviours of
leaders in the educational contexts. This study developed and validated the School Leader
Empowering Behaviours (SLEB) scale in the Singapore educational context. A convenience
sample of 304 teachers from the Singapore schools participated in the study. The sample was
randomly split into two sub-samples, Sample 1 (N=142) and Sample 2 (N=162). Exploratory
factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in Sample 1 to determine the number of factors and select the items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in Sample 2 for crossvalidation
to confirm the factorial structure of the scale and examine the model-data fit.
Results from both EFA and CFA provided support for a seven-factor SLEB scale as well as a
higher-order factor structure. Each sub-scale of the SLEB showed good internal consistency
reliability and predictive validity. The potential uses of the SLEB scale were also discussed
This is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. The published version is available online at
Other Identifiers: 
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
TAPER-22-4-485.pdf179.35 kBAdobe PDFThumbnail
Show full item record

Page view(s) 20

checked on May 19, 2019

Download(s) 5

checked on May 19, 2019

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.