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Secondary school socio-cultural context influencing ICT integration: A case study approach
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Divaharan, S., & Lim, C. P. (2010). Secondary school socio-cultural context influencing ICT integration: A case study approach. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(6), 741-763.
This paper proposes the use of activity theory and multi-level activity systems as a
framework to analyse the effectiveness of ICT integration in Singapore secondary
school classrooms. Three levels of activity systems are developed to study the
effectiveness of ICT integration at the classroom: the classroom activity system, the
department activity system and the school activity system. A multiple case study
approach with three secondary schools in Singapore was adopted to provide in depth
understanding of the socio-cultural factors that affect ICT integration in the
classrooms. The findings show that schools need to function as learning organisations
to be adaptable to changes, especially rapid changes brought about by technology
integration in curriculum. To be successful learning organisations, schools need a
curriculum focused, over-arching ICT goal to provide clear direction to the key players
– teachers, HOD/ICT and instructional program HODs in the school. The
management approach to ICT integration in the school should be through distributed
leadership. While the school principal sets the tone for the school vis-à-vis modelling
curriculum focused integration, providing encouragement to teachers and support for
the HODs plans, the role of the HOD/ICT should be to ensure the relevant ICTenabled
infrastructure and implementation procedures are in place.
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