Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/16234
Title: 
Leadership that transforms and transacts: A case of more inspiration and less charisma
Authors: 
Keywords: 
Transformational leadership
Charismatic leadership
Inspirational leadership
Intellectual stimulation
Transactional leadership
Contingent reward
Management-by-exception
Issue Date: 
1993
Citation: 
Singapore Journal of Education, 13(2), 50-65
Abstract: 
Bass' (1985) model of transformational leadership was largely confirmed in this study of school-level leaders in Singapore. However, instead of three factors of transformational leadership only two were obtained. Charismatic Leadership failed to emerge. It was replaced by an Inspirational Leadership factor that also included Bass' Intellectual Stimulation factor. The two transactional leadership factors of Contingent Reward and "passive" Management-by-Exception were obtained, but not the more recent addition, the "active" Management-by-Exception factor. Contrary to expectation, no gender difference was obtained with regard to the four factors.
URI: 
ISSN: 
0129-4776
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles - Singapore Journal of Education

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