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Bilingual learning
Learning motivation
Learning attitudes
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Wong, L. H., Chai, C. S., Chen, W., & Chin, C. K. (2013). Measuring Singaporean students’ motivation and strategies of bilingual learning. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(3), 263-272.
This paper reports a pilot study on the development
and validation of the bilingual (Chinese and English)
“Motivation and Attitudes for Language Learning
Inventory” (MALLI). MALLI is designed to measure
secondary school students’ learning motivations, and several
other factors in the learning of both Chinese and
English languages. We adapted relevant subscales from
“Motivation and Strategies in Learning Questionnaire” and
“Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory” to
create the MALLI (Chinese) and MALLI (English) versions
to investigate the factors with reference to Chinese
and English learning respectively. Both instruments contain
the same set of items with reference to Chinese and
English learning correspondingly. After going through
initial validation, the instruments were administered to 318
students from various secondary schools in Singapore.
Exploratory Factor Analysis resulted in the selection of 33
items from six identified subscales: intrinsic value,
extrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, study management,
teacher support (TS), and ICT for learning (ICT). To
demonstrate how the questionnaire can be applied to
compare the students’ perceptions related to learning of the two languages, a series of paired t tests was performed on
the questionnaire data. It was found that there are significant
differences in the students’ perceptions on TS and ICT
in the learning of both languages. We discussed the
implications of the findings at the end of the paper.
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