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Goh, S. C., & Fraser, B. J. (1996, November). Classroom climate and student outcomes in elementary mathematics. Paper presented at the ERA-AARE Joint Conference, Singapore.
This study examined associations between classroom climate and
affective and cognitive outcomes among primary mathematics students in
Singapore. Also gender differences in students' achievement, attitudes
and perceptions of classroom climate were explored. A random sample of
1,512 boys and girls from government primary schools was used. For the
analysis of climate-outcome associations, a series of statistical
analyses were conducted using two units of analysis, namely, the
individual student and the class mean. For the analysis of gender
differences, multivariate analyses of variance for repeated measures
was performed for the two outcome measures and the classroom climate
scales. The study led to the validation of a widely-applicable and
convenient learning environment questionnaire for future use by
researchers and teachers at the primary school level. Overall the
different methods of analysis yielded consistent associations between
classroom climate and student outcomes. Gender differences were
detected in mathematics achievement, in favour of boys, but girls
generally viewed their classroom climate more favourably than the boys
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