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Lim, T. K. (1996, November). Critical thinking and socratic inquiry in the classroom. Paper presented at the ERA-AARE Joint Conference, Singapore.
Critical thinking is widely regarded as a generalized skill or ability
(or a set of such skills and abilities) to be utilized across a variety
of situations and circumstances. The definitions of critical thinking
vary from Ennis' comprehensive list of proficiencies of a critical
thinker, to Paul's "strong-sense" critical thinking, focusing on
self-deception, world views and a dialectical mode of analysis, and to
Lipman's critical thinking being extremely deliberative with continual
examining and weighing of alternatives in the light of explicit
standards and criteria. The paper focuses on different models of
critical thinking in the classroom: Paul's Socratic Questioning model,
Adler's Paedeia Socratic Seminar programme, Van Tassel-Baska's
Epistemological Concept model and Lipman's Philosophy for Children
programme. The role of teachers in these models and how teachers can
bring about inquiry in the classroom are discussed.
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