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Title: Shadow educations: Mapping the global discourse
Authors: Manzon, Maria
Shaljan Areepattamannil
Keywords: Private supplementary tutoring
Shadow education
Bray and Thomas cube
Comparative education
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: Manzon, M., & Areepattamannil, S. (2014). Shadow educations: Mapping the global discourse. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 389–402.
Abstract: Private supplementary tutoring, also widely known as shadow education, is becoming a global phenomenon and an object of international scholarship. Private tutoring has multiple forms and positions across educational systems and levels, thus the term “shadow educations”. Asia is a notable location of shadow education activity. This editorial article maps the global discourse on shadow educations, using an expanded framework for analysis based on the Bray and Thomas cube. Against this backdrop, Asian research on shadow education presented in this special issue is introduced and its contribution to the global discourse is highlighted. A possible global research agenda is offered with the hope that new understandings derived from scholarly research may aid stakeholders in achieving the aims of education.
Description: This is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in Asia Pacific Journal of Education. The published version is available online at
ISSN: 0218-8791 (print)
1742-6855 (online)
Other Identifiers: 10.1080/02188791.2014.969194
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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