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Huang, J. S., Lam, R. J., & Manu Kapur. (2016). Investigating analogical problem posing as the generative task in the Productive Failure design. In C. K. Looi, J. Polman, U. Cress, & P. Reimann (Eds.). Transforming learning, empowering learners: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2016, Volume 2 (pp. 998-1001). Singapore: International Society of the Learning Sciences.
Research on Productive Failure and preparatory mechanisms has consistently
demonstrated a positive learning effect when students generate problem solutions before
receiving formal instruction. However, it has been less examined whether the effect still holds
when the generative task does not involve problem solving. Using a 2x2 experimental design,
this study investigated the effects of generative tasks that involve analogical problem posing
(without solving) on learning and transfer. Pedagogical sequence (i.e., generation-first or
instruction-first) and type of analogical reasoning task (i.e., generating one’s own analogical
problems or generating analogical mappings between given analogical problems) were the two
factors manipulated. Preliminary analysis revealed no multivariate effects of the factors. Thus,
we discuss the learning mechanisms enacted by analogical reasoning, reliability of the
instruments, and the participants’ prior condition as possible reasons and to inform future
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