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Listening and speaking
oracy instruction
direct teaching
Issue Date: 
Goh, C. C. M. (2014). Reconceptualising second language oracy instruction: Metacognitive engagement and direct teaching in listening. The Asian Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 2(1), 1-31.
The value of listening and speaking (oracy) competence for English language
learners is not limited to day-to-day communication. L2 oracy is essential for academic
learning, creative and critical thinking, collaboration and innovation in our globalised world
of the 21st century. At a more fundamental level, listening and speaking are essential to the
process of language acquisition, as they strengthen language learners’ overall development of
the English language regardless of their age or learning circumstances. In this article, I
suggest that we should review approaches to listening and speaking instruction and call for it
to be reconceptualised so that language learners can be personally involved in understanding,
enhancing and managing their learning processes in a holistic manner. I also propose
including more direct teaching of L2 listening and speaking through well-structured lessons
and metacognitive activities to enable learners to observe their learning processes and
examine elements of language and discourse required for successful completion of oracy
learning tasks. This enhanced conception of L2 oracy instruction will rely heavily on
teachers’ ability and commitment to make teaching explicit and scaffold processes of
learning. Underpinning my discussion is the key role of metacognition in language learning.
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