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Green synthesis of vertical graphene nanosheets and its application in high-performance supercapacitors
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Ouyang, B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z., Fan, H. J., & Rawat, R. S. (2016). Green synthesis of vertical graphene nanosheets and their application in high-performance supercapacitors. RSC Advances, 6(28), 23968-23973.
Vertical standing graphene sheets are highly desirable in energy storage applications because without π-π stacking their surface can be fully utilized. In this work, vertical graphene nanosheets (VGS) is successfully synthesized on the nickel foam via a simple plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. Instead of hazardous and costly hydrocarbon gases, we adopt a green approach by using a low-cost, non-toxic, sustainable and environmentally-friendly natural organic material, M. alternifolia essential oil (containing hydrocarbon monomer), as the precursor. The 4 minute deposition duration results in multilayered horizontal graphene (h-GS) with sparsely distributed vertical graphene while 16 minute deposition leads to fully covered vertical graphene nanosheets (f-VGS). To demonstrate their application as conductive and high-surface-area substrate in energy storage, MnO2 thin films are hydrothermal grown to form MnO2@f-VGS core-shell structure and MnO2@h-GS. The core@shell electrode of MnO2@f-VGS demonstrates a significantly higher specific capacitance of 203 F g-1 at a current density of 10 A g-1 compared to that of 82 F g-1 at 10 A g-1 shown by MnO2@h-GS. Moreover, the assembled full supercapacitors containing MnO2@f-VGS || active carbon as electrodes can deliver a reasonably high specific capacitance of 250 F g-1 at 2 A g-1. Such f-VGS may have application also in battery and fuel cell electrodes.
This is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in RSC Advances. The published version is available online at
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