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Title: Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract: Surveying its origins and charting its future
Authors: Leong, Yew Hoong
Ho, Weng Kin
Cheng, Lu Pien
Keywords: Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract
Mathematics instruction
Teacher professional development
Issue Date: 2015
Citation: Leong, Y. H., Ho, W. K., & Cheng, L. P. (2015). Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract: Surveying its origins and charting its future. The Mathematics Educator, 16(1), 1-18. Retrieved from
Abstract: The Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract (CPA) approach, based on Bruner’s conception of the enactive, iconic and symbolic modes of representation, is a well-known instructional heuristic advocated by the Singapore Ministry of Education since early 1980’s. Despite its ubiquity as a teaching strategy throughout the entire mathematics education community in Singapore, it is somewhat surprising to see a lack of an account of its theoretical roots. This paper is an attempt to contribute to this discussion on the CPA strategy and its potential role in continuing advancement of quality mathematics education.
ISSN: 0218-9100
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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