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dc.contributor.authorLow, Ee Lingen
dc.contributor.authorAo, Ranen
dc.identifier.citationLow, E. L., & Ao, R. (2018). The Spread of English in ASEAN: Policies and issues. RELC Journal, 49(2), 131-148.
dc.identifier.issn0033-6882 (print)-
dc.identifier.issn1745-526X (online)-
dc.descriptionThis is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in RELC Journal. The published version is available online at
dc.description.abstractThe ASEAN region is home to great ethnic, cultural, political and economic diversity and linguistically, represents a region where both Outer and Expanding Circle varieties of English are spoken. English is designated as the sole working language of ASEAN but in reality, it has a different status and performs very different roles in each ASEAN member state. This paper first provides an overview of the spread of English in Southeast Asia. It then looks at English language policies in each of the Outer and Expanding Circle ASEAN countries, and discusses issues like models and norms of English spoken and intelligibility concerns. The paper concludes by emphasizing that global-local tensions in the use of English in each of the ASEAN contexts should be taken into consideration. There is also the need to strike a balance between the existing tensions in order for the region to compete in the 21st century globally connected landscape.en
dc.subjectSoutheast Asiaen
dc.subjectOuter Circleen
dc.subjectExpanding Circleen
dc.subjectLanguage policyen
dc.subjectModels of Englishen
dc.subjectEnglish as a lingua francaen
dc.titleThe spread of English in ASEAN: Policies and issuesen
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