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Reading intervention
Response to intervention
Formative assessment
Multi-tiered system of support
Issue Date: 
Office of Education Research
Tan, C. S., O’Brien, B., & Lyna. (2020). A two-tiered approach to supporting pupils with reading difficulties in P3 mainstream classrooms. Technical Report, Office of Education Research. Singapore: National Institute of Education.
PROBLEMSThe Ministry of Education has initiated an evidence-based programme known as the Learning Support Programme (LSP) for struggling readers in Primary 1 and 2. At the end of P2, some pupils in the LSP still have not achieved adequate reading skills and continue to require learning support. As LSP does not extend beyond P2, these pupils may receive some school-based support after P2 but the quality of support varies from school to school. Besides these pupils, there are also other pupils who are not in LSP but have not shown adequate reading progress at the end of P2. The needs of these pupils are not identified because universal screening of pupils only occurs in P1. These pupils also require further assistance to boost their reading ability. Hence, there is a need for a process to systematically identify these pupils at the end of P2 and to provide targeted interventions to these pupils beyond P2.

The problem is exacerbated by the limited resources in the schools. In any primary school, there are usually one or two Allied Educators (Learning and Behavioural Support) or AEDS (LBS) who have been trained in providing learning support. However, in most schools, their primary responsibility is to support pupils identified with special needs. Hence pupils with reading difficulties but who have not been diagnosed with a special need may not receive any learning support in many schools. Even though schools have organized workshops for teachers to support pupils with learning difficulties, some teachers continue to feel inadequate about differentiating lessons to meet the needs of struggling readers. In addition, anecdotal evidence gathered from school leaders suggest that there is a lack of clarity amongst teachers on how to use the assessment data in planning lessons or interventions for these pupils.
Project number: 
AFR 02/14 TCS
Grant ID: 
Education Research Funding Programme
Funding Agency: 
Ministry of Education, Singapore
Appears in Collections:OER - Reports

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