Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Mathematical justification
Mathematical reasoning
Secondary mathematics
Students’ perception
Teachers’ perception
Issue Date: 
Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore
Chua, B. L. (2020). Justification in Mathematics (JiM). National Institute of Education (Singapore), Office of Education Research.
This JiM project set out to research the current state of understanding of mathematical justification by both Singapore secondary school students and Mathematics teachers across the different content strands in the Singapore secondary Mathematics curriculum. This timely and relevant project was started to complement the current goal of the Ministry of Education (MOE) on fostering reasoning in the learning of Mathematics in schools. While MOE focuses on the reasoning process, our study examined the outcomes of this reasoning process.

For many years, mathematical reasoning and communication have been two key process skills in the Singapore Mathematics Framework under the Processes component. Thus, mathematical reasoning and justification are essential components of any mathematical activity that students should be familiar with. Yet from our personal communications with secondary school mathematics teachers between 2013 and 2016 and evidence from GCE O and N Level examiners’ reports, we obtained the impression that many students, as well as mathematics teachers, struggled to navigate mathematical justification successfully. Mathematics teachers seemed to point students’ difficulties in justification to several student-related factors. Other than those factors, we, however, speculated that there might be other potential obstacles, which contribute to students’ poor performance in justification tasks. Therefore, this JiM project was undertaken to explore the quality of written justifications constructed by secondary school students and their mathematics teachers, with the aim of proposing a professional development (PD) programme that would allow the teachers to better engage their students in mathematical reasoning and justification more effectively, thereby improving the quality of written justifications provided by their students.
Project number: 
OER 01/16 CBL
Grant ID: 
Education Research Funding Programme (ERFP)
Funding Agency: 
Ministry of Education, Singapore
Appears in Collections:OER - Reports

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
OER-01-16-CBL.pdf549.51 kBAdobe PDFThumbnail
Show full item record

Page view(s)

checked on Apr 19, 2021


checked on Apr 19, 2021

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.