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Character and Citizenship Education (CCE)
Digital Storytelling (DST)
Process drama
Nexus analysis
Normal academic students
Teachers’ professionalism
Issue Date: 
Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore
Towndrow, P. A., Rethinavel Shanmugam, Kogut, G., Pereira, A., & Wales, P. E. (2020). Visualising and performing character and citizenship (CCE) through digital storytelling (DST). National Institute of Education (Singapore), Office of Education Research.
Building on and consolidating previously completed research at the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, this study investigated how students recruited and used digital media, equipment and software in storytelling to visualise and perform Character and Citizenship (CCE) at a secondary school in Singapore. There were two interconnected reasons for wanting to combine these curriculum areas.

First, using Gardner’s ‘Five Minds for the Future’ framework (the Disciplined Mind, the Synthesizing mind, the Creating Mind, the Respectful mind and the Ethical Mind) we saw some points of resonance with the Ministry of Education’s primary goals for CCE—to develop core values, social and emotional competencies, and civic and moral awareness. Yet, the importance and necessity of exercising the Synthesizing and Creating Minds seemed weak.

Second, in line with 21st Century learning and literacy needs, the project responded to the deepening and widening digital proliferation in society and the noticeable transition from the written word as telling, to screen-borne images as showing. Indeed, recognizing and accounting for contemporary media use in mainstream education has become a priority for educators, policy-makers, teachers and learners who care about communication and expression.
Note: Restricted to NIE staff only. Contact author for access to report.
Project number: 
OER 11/15 PT
Grant ID: 
Education Research Funding Programme (ERFP)
Funding Agency: 
Ministry of Education, Singapore
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