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Silent reading fluency
Biliteracy development
Malay language
Chinese language
Issue Date: 
Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore
Sun, B. (2020). Developing a reading fluency instrument for bilingual primary school children in Singapore. National Institute of Education (Singapore), Office of Education Research.
Research has consistently shown that reading fluency is one of the defining characteristics of good readers (Klauda & Guthrie, 2008) and a reliable predictor of reading comprehension (Torgesen, Rashotte, & Alexander, 2001; Roehrig, Petscher, Nettles, Hudson, & Torgesen, 2008). Differences in reading fluency not only distinguish good readers from poor, but a lack of reading fluency may also emerge as the next hurdle poor readers face on their way to reading proficiency (Torgesen et al., 2001; Torgesen, Rashotte, Alexander, Alexander, & MacPhee, 2003). Moreover, the administration of a reading fluency test is easy and uncomplicated, hence the reading fluency test has gained popularity in assessing and monitoring reading development among school age children (Traylor, Price, & Meisinger, 2011). However, most of the studies concentrated on English-speaking children, and the only Chinese reading fluency test available does not have a parallel form (Li & Wu, 2015; Wu et al., 2009). Furthermore, little research has focused on English-Malay bilingual children and no Malay reading fluency test has been published. Hence, there is a pressing need to add to the existing reading fluency measurements by developing a Chinese parallel version as well as two Malay versions.
Note: Restricted to NIE staff.
Project number: 
SUG 01/18 SBQ
Grant ID: 
Education Research Funding Programme (ERFP)
Funding Agency: 
Ministry of Education, Singapore
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