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Chen, Victor Der-Thanq
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This study reports on a two-cycle design-based research in a Singapore Character and Citizenship education (CCE) primary classroom. Literature review suggests a constructive pedagogical approach in CCE learning, particularly dialogue-based learning integrated with everyday experience. In Singapore context, intervention studies are generally lacking. More studies are either policy studies or baseline research. There is a need for exemplary cases and development of design principles. Educational digital storytelling (EDS) was thus introduced. Five orientations were identified, and the reconstructive EDS was proposed for the context. An initial set of STORM (skills, thinking, options, reflection, and making) design principles were further distilled to inform the research design. Specifically, the study aims to answer three research questions.

RQ1: What is the EDS design that would help this group of Primary 5 students to achieve the CCE goals?
RQ2: How is the design implemented?
RQ3: What are the effects of the design?

Conjecture mapping by Sandoval (2004, 2014) was further adopted and refined to inform the research design. The refined conjecture map embedded three types of conjecture, i.e., design conjectures linking design principles to instantiations in the EDS workshop, mediating conjectures linking the instantiations to the evidences, and theological conjectures linking the evidences to the outcomes. A range of data were collected for triangulation, including focus group discussion, final reflection, one-minute papers, story artefacts, video recording of story circles, and teacher interview. Thematic analysis (Charmaz, 2014) was adopted to develop a framework of categories to answer the questions. Conjectures were examined and refined across cycles.

Based on the two-cycle studies, 14 conjectures were established. They can be further concluded in the following three statements.

1. Guided critical thinking (DPTg) can be designed as explicit teaching integrated with value-based choices and reasoning in the story circle. The story circle videos provide evidence for identity, relationships, and choices outcomes.
2. Learning options (DPO) can be designed as authoring choices, which enable the making of media artefacts. These artefacts provide evidence for identity outcomes.
3. Learner reflection (DPR) can be designed as 2-1-1 paper (2 take-aways, 1 question and 1 recommendation) with value-focused questions, collective reflections upon the raised questions, and the final reflection on the workshop. These reflection artefacts and dialogues provide evidence for identity and choices outcomes.

Generally, identity and relationship outcomes were well achieved. The choice outcomes were not obvious in Cycle 1. Cycle 2 showed positive outcomes with some students reporting that they learned to think before they made a choice and they would choose to be guided by the value. Some students, however, could not relate the workshop learning to choices. A few of them perceived choices as authoring choices and not value-based choices.

A new DP was recommended for future studies to further require students to include perplexing dilemma scenario in the stories and play with (tinkering) the tensions of choices. The design principles were further summarized as D- STgTiORiRcM, integrating the new DP, the guided and independent critical thinking, and the individual and collective reflection. Tinkering tensions for collective reasoning was further recommended as a pedagogical design for decision-making. A meta-conjecture map was also included. The thesis ends with my reflections upon the tensions in research and locus of being.
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Call Number: 
LC315.S55 Wu
Appears in Collections:Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

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