Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/22902
Title: 
Authors: 
Keywords: 
Cognition
Breakfast
Glycemic index
Physical activity
Citation: 
Kawabata, M., Lee, K., Choo, H.-C., & Burns, S. F. (2021). Breakfast and exercise improve academic and cognitive performance in adolescents. Nutrients, 13(4), Article 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041278
Abstract: 
This study examined the combined effects of breakfast and exercise on short-term academic and cognitive performance in adolescents. Eighty-two adolescents (64 female), aged 14–19 years, were randomized to four groups over a 4-hour morning: (i) a group who fasted and were sedentary (F-S); (ii) a group who ate breakfast but were sedentary (B-S); (iii) a group who fasted but completed a 30-min exercise bout (F-E); and (iv) a group who ate breakfast and completed a 30-min exercise bout (B-E). Individuals completed academic and cognitive tests over the morning. Adolescents in B-E significantly improved their mathematics score (B-E: 15.2% improvement on correct answers, vs. F-S: 6.7% improvement on correct answers; p = 0.014) and computation time for correct answers (B-E: 16.7% improvement, vs. F-S: 7.4% improvement; p = 0.004) over the morning compared with the F-S group. The B-E group had faster reaction times for congruent, incongruent and control trials of the Stroop Color-Word Task compared with F-S mid-morning (all p < 0.05). Morning breakfast and exercise combine to improve short-term mathematical task performance and speed in adolescents.
URI: 
ISBN: 
2072-6643 (online)
Other Identifiers: 
10.3390/nu13041278
Project number: 
OER 1/13 SFB
Website: 
Grant ID: 
Education Research Funding Programme (ERFP)
Funding Agency: 
Ministry of Education, Singapore
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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