Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/23686
Title: 
Authors: 
Keywords: 
3D printed
Custom made
Foot orthoses
Flat feet
Orthotic dimensions
Comfort perception
Heel pain
Issue Date: 
2021
Citation: 
Ho, M., Nguyen, J., Talbot, K., Heales, L., Kean, C., Kong, P. W., & Stanton, R. (2021). Immediate comfort perception of 3D-printed foot orthoses in individuals with unilateral heel pain. Prosthetics & Orthotics International. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1097/pxr.0000000000000068
Journal: 
Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Abstract: 
Background:
Custom-made foot orthoses (FOs) play an integral part in managing foot disorders. Traditional FO fabrication is time-consuming and labor intensive. Three-dimensional (3D) printed FOs save time and cost compared with the traditional manufacturing process. To date, the differences in dimensions and comfort perception of these orthoses have not been compared in a pathological population.

Objective:
Compare the dimensions between 3D-printed and traditionally made FOs and comfort perception between 3D-printed, traditionally made, and no FOs in individuals with flatfeet and unilateral heel pain.

Study design:
Within-subject single-blinded randomized crossover study design.

Methods:
Thirteen participants had custom-made FOs using 3D-printing and traditional processes. Orthotic lengths, widths, arch heights, and heel cup heights were compared. Participants performed walking trials under three conditions: (1) no orthoses, (2) 3D-printed orthoses, and (3) traditionally made orthoses. Comfort perception was recorded. Orthotic dimensions were compared using paired t tests, and comfort perception were compared using one-way multiple analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests.

Results:
Three-dimensional–printed orthoses were wider, have higher arch heights, and heel cup heights compared with traditionally made FOs (medium to large effect sizes). There was a difference in comfort perception between the three orthotic conditions, F(12,62) = 1.99, P = 0.04; Wilk Λ = 0.521, ηp2= 0.279. Post hoc tests show that there is no difference in comfort perception between the 3D-printed and traditionally made FOs. Both FOs were significantly more comfortable than no orthoses.

Conclusions:
Three-dimensional printing seems to be a viable alternative orthotic fabrication option. Future studies should compare the biomechanical effects of 3D-printed and traditionally made FOs.
URI: 
ISSN: 
0309-3646 (print)
1746-1553 (online)
DOI: 
File Permission: 
Embargo_20221201
File Availability: 
With file
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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