Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/24205
Title: 
Authors: 
Keywords: 
3D-printed
Foot orthoses
Heel pain
3D motion analyses
Biomechanics
Walking
Gait
Issue Date: 
2022
Citation: 
Ho, M., Nguyen, J., Heales, L., Stanton, R., Kong, P. W., & Kean, C. (2022). The biomechanical effects of 3D printed and traditionally made foot orthoses in individuals with unilateral plantar fasciopathy and flat feet. Gait & Posture, 96, 257-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.06.006
Journal: 
Gait & Posture
Abstract: 
Background
Foot orthoses (FOs) are used to manage foot pathologies such as plantar fasciopathy. 3D printed custom-made FOs are increasingly being manufactured. Although these 3D-printed FOs look like traditionally heat-moulded FOs, there are few studies comparing FOs made using these two different manufacturing processes.

Research question
How effective are 3D-printed FOs (3D-Print) compared to traditionally-made (Traditional) or no FOs (Control), in changing biomechanical parameters of flat-footed individuals with unilateral plantar fasciopathy?

Methods
Thirteen participants with unilateral plantar fasciopathy walked with shoes under three conditions: Control, 3D-print, and Traditional. 2 × 3 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to compare discrete kinematic and kinetic variables between limbs and conditions. Waveform analyses were also conducted using statistical parametric mapping (SPM).

Results
There was a significant condition main effect for arch height drop (p = 0.01; ηp2 =0.54). There was 0.87 mm (95% CI [−1.84, −0.20]) less arch height drop in 3D-print compared to Traditional. The SPM analyses revealed condition main effects on ankle moment (p < 0.001) and ankle power (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between control condition and both 3D-print and Traditional conditions. For ankle moment and power, there were no differences between 3D-print and Traditional conditions.

Significance
3D-printed FOs are more effective in reducing arch height drop, whist both FOs lowered ankle plantarflexion moment and power compared to no FOs. The results support the use of 3D-printed FOs as being equally effective as traditionally-made FOs in changing lower limb biomechanics for a population of flat-footed individuals with unilateral plantar fasciopathy.
URI: 
ISSN: 
0966-6362 (print)
1879-2219 (online)
DOI: 
Grant ID: 
RSH/4955
Funding Agency: 
CQUniversity Australia
File Permission: 
Embargo_20240701
File Availability: 
With file
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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