Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Psychosocial factors associated with lower extremity re-injury risk in soccer players: Contribution of self- confidence, functional attention, and re-injury anxiety
    (National Athletic Trainer's Association, 2024)
    Aynollah Naderi
    Mohammad Rahimi
    Syed Yahya Zarghami
    Tranaeus, Ulrika

    Despite the availability of specialized assessment tools, psychological readiness is usually not considered when deciding to return to sport (RTS) after sport injury. Re-injury anxiety, self-confidence, and functional attention may be associated with sport re-injury, making it important to evaluate these factors before RTS.
    This study aimed to predict lower extremity re-injury in soccer players using self- confidence, functional attention, and re-injury anxiety as predictive variables.
    Prospective cohort study.
    Patients or Other Participants:
    Sixty-two male soccer players, who were older than 18 years of age, suffered from lower extremity injuries, had completed the rehabilitation program, and were ready to RTS.
    Main Outcome Measures:
    Prior to returning to the sport, participants completed a pre-season questionnaire on their previous injuries, self-confidence, re-injury anxiety, and level of functional attention. The primary outcome measured was the risk of re-injury during the upcoming competitive season, and logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals to determine the association between each risk factor and re- injury.
    Overall re-injury rate was 5.56 injuries per 1000 hours of play. Self-confidence scores ≤ 47 increased the risk of re-injury by 2.26 times (relative risk, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.31-3.91; OR, 5.00; 95% CI, 1.56-16.04) and each unit increase in self-confidence score reduced the risk of re-injury by 10% (OR:0.90; CI: 0.82-0.99, p=0.03). Regarding re-injury anxiety, a score >22 was associated with 2.43 times the risk of re-injury (relative risk, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.44-4.13; OR, 6.46; 95% CI, 1.93-21.69) and each unit increase in re-injury anxiety score increased the risk of injury by 45% (OR:1.45; CI: 1.13-0.87, p=0.004).
    Increased re-injury anxiety and decreased self-confidence are associated with higher odds of lower extremity re-injury in male soccer players. To reduce the risk of re-injury, athletic trainers and sport psychologists should take these psychological factors into account when evaluating the psychological readiness of soccer players with a history of lower extremity injury to RTS.

  • Publication
    Open Access
    Assessing ethical behavior and self-control in elite ultimate championships: A cross-sectional study using the spirit of the game scoring system
    (Frontiers Media, 2024)
    Amoroso, Jose Pedro
    Coelho, Luis
    Boulton, Rebecca A.
    Gonzalez-Toro, Christie M.
    Costa, Felipe
    Christodoulides, Efstathios
    Cools, Wouter
    Dudley, Dean
    Moore Jr, James E.
    Furtado, Guilherme Eustaquio
    Cheng, Ming-Yang

    Implementing a self-refereeing system presents a unique challenge in sports education, particularly in academic and training settings where officiated sports prevail. However, Ultimate Frisbee stands out by entrusting players with both athlete and referee roles, introducing distinctive ethical complexities. This manuscript is intended to evaluate ethical behavior and self-control within the Spirit of the Game (SOTG) scoring system in Elite Ultimate. To address these, Ultimate employs the (SOTG) scoring system, integral since the sport's inception in the late 1980s. SOTG aims to enhance and evaluate athletes’ ethical conduct. This study evaluates SOTG's effectiveness in elite-level Ultimate, analyzing variations across divisions and age groups in three high-level tournaments.

    Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from five international Ultimate tournaments in 2022. Teams spanned diverse age groups (under 17 to over 50) and divisions (women's, mixed, open). Post-match, teams assessed opponents’ SOTG in five domains: Rules knowledge, fouls, fairness, attitude/self-control, and communication. Ratings used a 5-point Likert scale (“poor” to “excellent”). An overall SOTG score was calculated by aggregating domain scores.

    Our study consistently revealed high SOTG scores, reflecting strong sportsmanship. “Positive attitude and self-control” consistently ranked highest, while “Knowledge and use of the rules” scored lowest. Divisional differences in SOTG were statistically insignificant. Notably, WMUCC2022 (participants aged 30+) had significantly higher SOTG scores, possibly indicating age-related self-control improvement or evolving sport culture. Lower rules knowledge scores may stem from linguistic translation challenges.

    Self-refereeing promotes ethical behavior across divisions and age groups. SOTG underscores sportsmanship's importance and aligns with International Olympic Committee (IOC) and with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG 3, 4, 5 and 16 fostering a fairer, healthier, and more peaceful world.

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