Now showing 1 - 10 of 105
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Aerobic energy contribution to maximal exercise in children
    The aerobic energy contribution to a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT30 s) was examined in 18 boys and 18 girls aged 10-12 years. Participants completed an incremental test to volitional exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and a WAnT30 s on two separate occasions on a cycle ergometer (Monark 834E). VO2 during the tests was monitored breath-by-breath using an on-line gas analysis system (SensorMedics). WAnT30 s VO2 amounted to 67% and 73% of peak VO2 in boys and girls, respectively. By assuming extreme mechanical efficiency (ME) values of 15% and 35%, the aerobic contributions to the WAnT30 s in boys and girls were between 16% and 45%. Peak VO2 and WAnT30 s power were higher in boys than in girls but there was no sex difference in the aerobic energy contribution to the WAnT30 s for the same assumed ME. The magnitude of the aerobic energy contribution to the WAnT30 s reflected plausibly a swift oxygen uptake response to maximal intensity exercise and perhaps a reduced reliance on non-oxidative metabolism in boys and girls.
      240  234
  • Publication
    Open Access
      123  120
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Development and determinants of and recovery from all-out intensity exercise in paediatric subjects
    This purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of current literature on the development and determinants of and recovery from all-out intensity exercise in paediatric subjects. Between 8 and 21 years of age, the tempo and timing of development of power output among male and female paediatric subjects are different. Age exerts an independent effect on the evolution of maximal short-term power but sexual maturity does not appear to exert any significant effect once body mass, body fatness or thigh muscle volume are accounted for. Both quantitative and qualitative factors help to explain the 'growth curve' for maximal short-term power. Power recovery during repeated all-out intensity exercise is faster in paediatric subjects than in adult subjects. Directions for future research include the use of non-invasive technologies to study the mechanisms of all-out intensity exercise in paediatric subjects.
      134  105
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Allometrically adjusted isokinetic leg extension torque of adults in relation to body mass
    The purpose of the study was to examine the isokinetic leg extension torque of adult participants using allometric scaling to account for differences in body mass. 10 men (23.1y, 1.72m & 64.5kg) and nine women (20.7y, 1.62m & 52.1kg) participated in the study. Peak isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.02, 3.12 and 5.20 rad•s-1 were determined using a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. Torque at 1.04 rad•s-1 was significantly higher than torque at 3.12 rad•s-1 and 5.20 rad•s-1 in men and women. Torque in newton.metre in men were 162.5, 167.3 and 151.3% but were reduced to 130.2, 126.2 and 121.8% that of women when the data were allometrically scaled to body massb=0.89, 1.13 & 0.97. Common identified b exponents between torque and body mass included b=1.0 within the 95% confidence intervals, as predicted by geometric similarity theory.
      172  141
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Measures of reliability and validity of school-based pedometer step counts in Singaporean children
    (2005) ; ;
    Quek, Jin Jong
    The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of school-based pedometer step counts in Singaporean children. Participants were 10 boys and 10 girls aged 10-11 years old. School-based physical activity was monitored over a five-hour period using an electronic pedometer (PCB 147PDO) and a tri-axial accelerometer (RT3), fastened securely at the waist. Test-retest measurements of physical activity revealed no significant differences in step count (21.86.1 vs. 22.16.3 steps/min, p>0.05) and vector magnitude (580.470.9 vs. 581.189.4 vm!mln, p>o.o51. The girls' physical activity measurements were 77.5 % and 87.4 % that of boys'for pedometer and accelerometer readings. Typical error (TE) expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) for repeated measurements were 9.6% for pedometry compared to 4% for accelerometry. Intra-class correlations (ICC) were 0.90 for step count and 0.92 for vector magnitude, while Bland and Altman plots showed a similar spread of activity readings for the pedometer and accelerometer. Significant correlations were established between accelerometer readings and pedometer readings (r>0.75, p<0.05). Data from the study showed that the electronic pedometer was a reliable and valid motion sensor for assessing the school-based physical activity of Singaporean children, using a variety of reliability indicators. With the reliability and validity of pedometers established, future research should focus on the efficacy of intervention programs to curtail sedentary behaviours and heighten the attractiveness of active behaviours in the context of school.
      166  194
  • Publication
    Open Access
    The assessment of children's anaerobic performance using modifications of the Wingate Anaerobic Test
    (1997) ;
    Armstrong, Neil
    ;
    Childs, David
    Twenty-five girls and 25 boys (mean age 9.7 ± 0.3 years) each completed a 20- and 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Oxygen uptake during the WAnTs, and postexercise blood lactate samples were obtained. Inertia and load-adjusted power variables were higher (18.6-20.1% for peak, and 6.7- 7.5% for mean power outputs,p < .05) than the unadjusted values for both the 20- and 30-s WAnTs. The adjusted peak power values were higher (7.7-1 1.6%, p < .05) in both WAnTs when integrated over 1-s than over 5-s time periods. The aerobic contributions to the tests were lower (p < .05) in the 20-s WAnT (13.7-35.7%) than in the 30-s WAnT (17.744.3%) for assumed mechanical efficiencies of 13% and 30%. Postexercise blood lactate concentration after the WAnTs peaked by 2 min. No gender differences (p > .05) in anaerobic performances or peak blood lactate values were detected.
      283  516
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Inactivity physiology: Staying still, Singaporean youths are not moving enough
    (2013) ; ;
    Lye, Jamie Ching Ting
    The physical inactivity of Singaporean youths was examined using state-of-the-art ambulatory motion sensors (Actitrainer triaxial accelerometers) under free-living conditions on 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Participants included 128 male and 116 female adolescents, aged 12–15, from seven secondary schools. Neither boys nor girls met the national and international recommendation to accumulate at least 60 mins of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on a daily basis for healthy cardiovascular health. Sedentary time over the weekday and weekend accounted for a majority of the accelerometer-monitored time. Step count accumulated in school was 16% greater than outside-of-school time. Under free-living weekday and weekend living conditions, Singaporean youths are not sufficiently engaged in MVPA and if this behaviour becomes entrenched, it may have dire consequences on the future physical and metabolic health of adult Singaporeans.
      530  385
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Making the steps count: Adult stair use: Hindsight, insight & foresight
    (Asian Society of Kinesiology, 2023)
    Tung, C. K. C.
    ;
    Abdul Rashid Aziz
    ;
    Ong, S. T. H.
    ;
    The primary aim of the review is to present a balanced narrative of adult stair use. Healthy young and older adults can expect to reap multiple anthropometric, neuromuscular, physiological, and metabolic health benefits following adherence and accomplishment of stair use that is sustained over 2 to 12 weeks, at least 3 times a week, at a moderateto-vigorous intensity, either within exercise designs of continuous and sustained exercise, or within a timesaving, low volume, and high-intensity interval training set up. There are inherent risks of falls in stair use and participants should adhere to safety tips when navigating stairs in daily life as a form of commute or as intentional exercise. Additional steps for safety and inclusiveness to adult stair use exercise include customizing stair use to suit individual health, fitness, and the exercise context including those with special needs and medical conditions by working with medical practitioners.
      11  10
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Play reconsidered, resurrected and repositioned in children: Case study results from Singapore
    (University of Travnik, 2009)
    Hurried and highly scheduled lifestyles among children are common, especially among developed countries in East Asia such as in Singapore. Research data suggest that young people do not meet daily activity guidelines that promote physical health. There is a cogent need to reconsider, resurrect and reposition play in young people such that children can internalise the merits of play and caregivers can recognise that play confers social-emotional outcomes that are valued by those who invest in education. Data emanating from Singapore suggest very promising social-emotional learning outcomes following a 10-week intervention programme conducted during school curriculum hours.
      206  453