Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
  • Publication
    Open Access
    The role of nonlinear pedagogy in supporting the design of modified games in junior sports
    (2021) ; ;
    Seifert, Ludovic
    Nonlinear Pedagogy has been advocated as an approach that views acquisition of movement skills with a strong emphasis on exploratory behaviors and the development of individualized movement skills. Underpinned by Ecological Dynamics, Nonlinear Pedagogy provides key ideas on design principles to support a teaching and learning approach that accounts for dynamic interactions among constraints in the evolution of movement behaviors. In the context of junior sports, the manipulation of task constraints is central to how games can be re-designed for children to play that are age and body appropriate so that the games can still capture the key elements of representativeness as compared to the adult form of the game. Importantly, these games offer suitable affordances that promote sensible play that could be transferable to other contexts. In this paper, we provide an in-depth discussion on how Nonlinear Pedagogy is relevant in supporting the design and development of modified games in the context of junior sports. Practical implications are also provided to share how games can be modified for meaningful play to emerge.
    WOS© Citations 9Scopus© Citations 12  81  158
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Acute effect of exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults: Aerobic versus balance
    (2020)
    Formenti, Damiano
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    Cavaggioni, Luca
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    Duca, Marco
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    Trecroci, Athos
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    Rapelli, Mattia
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    Alberti, Giampietro
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    ;
    Iodice, Pierpaolo
    Background: Recent evidence has suggested that chronic physical activities including balance exercises have positive effects on cognition, but their acute effects are still unknown. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of balance exercise would enhance cognitive performance compared with aerobic activity.

    Methods: A total of 20 healthy middle-aged adults completed 2 acute 30-minute balance and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions on 2 counterbalanced separate occasions. To assess cognitive functions, performance tasks in executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time were tested before and immediately after each exercise session.

    Results: Although there were no significant interactions (time × exercise condition, P > .05), the main effects of time were significant in executive control (P < .05), perceptual speed (P < .05), and simple reaction time (P < .001), showing improvements after both exercises.

    Conclusions: These findings highlight that both types of exercise (aerobic, more metabolic and less cognitively demanding; balance, more cognitively and less metabolically demanding) were able to positively affect simple reaction time performance, perceptual speed, and executive control independently of physiological adjustments occurring during aerobic or balance exercise.
    WOS© Citations 19Scopus© Citations 23  37  145
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Development of new 9-ball test protocols for assessing expertise in cue sports
    (2021)
    Pan, Jingwen
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    ;
    Background This study aimed to develop new test protocols for evaluating 9-ball expertise levels in cue sports players. Methods Thirty-one male 9-ball players at different playing levels were recruited (recreational group, n = 8; university team, n = 15; national team, n = 8). A 15-ball test was administered to indicate overall performance by counting the number of balls potted. Five skill tests (power control, cue alignment, angle, back spin, and top spin) were conducted to evaluate specific techniques by calculating error distances from pre-set targets using 2D video analysis. Results Intra-class correlation analyses revealed excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in four out of five skill tests (ICC > 0.95). Significant between-group differences were found in 15-ball test performance (p <  0.001) and absolute error distances in the angle (p <  0.001), back spin (p = 0.006), and top spin tests (p = 0.045), with the recreational group performing worst while the national team performing best. Greater inter-trial variability was observed in recreational players than the more skilled players (p <  0.005). Conclusions In conclusion, the 9-ball test protocols were reliable and could successfully discriminate between different playing levels. Coaches and researchers may employ these protocols to identify errors, monitor training, and rank players.
    WOS© Citations 3Scopus© Citations 4  108  65
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Acquiring expertise in precision sports – A case in cue sports.
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2021) ; ;
    Pan, Jingwen
      117  89
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Flexibility, stability, and adaptability of team playing style as key determinants of within-season performance in football
    (2022)
    He, Qixiang
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    ;
    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between playing style variability and within-season team match performance outcomes. We examined 21,708 matches played in the top five leagues in Europe from the 2014/15 to 2019/20 season. Playing styles used by each team in each match were derived through a Gaussian-Mixture Model clustering of 31 match actions. The relationship between playing style choice and match outcome was also analysed using Multinomial Logistic Regression. However, team and opposition playing style predicted match outcome with low precision (39.78%). Measures of playing style variability, namely flexibility, stability, and adaptability, were derived using the coefficient of unalikeability, and relationship with performance outcomes were computed using Pearson’s correlation. Playing style flexibility was positively correlated with both offensive and defensive performance outcomes and win frequency (p < .01). Conversely, teams displaying higher playing style stability conceded less shots in the penalty box but demonstrated poorer offensive performance outcomes (p < .01). Playing style adaptability, indicative of high flexibility and stability, was positively associated with defensive performance outcomes and win frequency (p < .01). Our results indicate that playing style variability may be a significant indicator of team performance.
      102  73
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Adaptability of performance to different contextual constraints as a predictor of development and success in competitive football: A systematic review
    (EDP Sciences, 2023)
    He, Qixiang
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    Araujo, Duarte
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    Davids, Keith
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    ;
    This systematic review organizes the literature regarding the influence of contextual constraints on football match action profiles, in order to inform better practice when utilized a data-informed approach towards identifying and predicting high performing football players. Furthermore, the validity of examining “on-ball” match actions in competitive matches as an indicator of performance was also investigated. Based on the studies reviewed, task and environmental constraints were highlighted to be significantly influential on match actions performed, which suggests that recruitment strategies may be more successful if there were a greater emphasis on identifying players that best fit the constraints unique to the team, rather than recruiting the “best” player in the position. Additionally, the ability to adapt and successfully produce goal-directed behaviour in a variety of contexts may therefore be indicative of future high performance. Results from existing studies suggest that match actions performed in competitive matches can significantly distinguish between higher and lower performing teams or individuals. However, given the largely retrospective study designs of existing studies, a shift towards prospective study designs utilizing machine learning or statistical modelling is proposed to increase the practical applicability of theoretical findings.
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  • Publication
    Open Access
    Influence of expertise level on techniques of applying top and back spins in cue sports
    (2022)
    Pan, Jingwen
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    ;
    Yang, Chen
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    This study compared the kinematics of upper body and cue stick among players of various skill levels when performing back spin and top spin shots. Twenty-eight male cue sports players were assigned to the novice (n = 10), intermediate (n = 9), or skilled groups (n = 9). The back spin and top spin tests were administrated while kinematic data were recorded using a 3D motion capture system. The results revealed greater upper limb joint ranges of motions (all p < 0.05), maximum angular velocities (all p < 0.05), and cue tip speed in the back spin than top spin shots (p < 0.001). None of joint kinematic or shot performance variables investigated was significantly different among the three skill levels (all p > 0.05). For the head movement, the novice group exhibited greater anteroposterior displacement than the skilled group (p = 0.020). In conclusion, except for the head movement, the upper body and cue stick kinematics did not significantly differ among players with varied skill levels. Greater joint ranges of motions and angular velocities were required to generate a faster cue tip speed for the back spin shots when compared with the top spin shots.
    WOS© Citations 1Scopus© Citations 1  66  8
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Effects of practice on a mechanical horse with an online feedback on performing a sitting postural coordination
    (2020)
    Baillet, Heloise
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    Leroy, David
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    Verin, Eric
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    Delpouve, Claire
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    Boulanger, Jeremie
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    Benguigui, Nicolas
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    Thouvarecq, Regis
    The present research aims at quantifying the impact of practicing a new coordination pattern with an online visual feedback on the postural coordination performed on a mechanical horse. Forty-four voluntary participants were recruited in this study. They were randomly assigned to four practice groups based on i) with or without feedback (i.e., group 1, control, did not receive the feedback; group 2, 3 and 4 received an online feedback during practice) and ii) the specific trunk/horse coordination to target during practice (group 1, target coordination = 180° (without feedback); group 2, target coordination = 0°; group 3, target coordination = 90°; group 4, target coordination = 180°). All participants performed pre-, practice, post- and retention sessions. The pre-, post- and retention sessions consisted of four trials, with one trial corresponding to one specific target coordination to maintain between their own oscillations and the horse oscillations (spontaneous, 0°, 90°, and 180°). The practice phase was composed of three different sessions during which participants received an online feedback about the coordination between their own oscillations and the horse oscillations. Results showed a significant change with practice in the trunk/horse coordination patterns which persisted even after one month (retention-test). However, all the groups did not show the same nature of change, evidenced by a high postural variability during post-test for 0° and 90° target coordination groups, in opposition to the 180° and spontaneous groups who showed a decrease in coordination variability for the 180° group. The coordination in anti-phase was characterized as spontaneously adopted by participants on the mechanical horse, explaining the ease of performing this coordination (compared to the 0° and 90° target coordination). The effect of online visual feedback appeared not only on the coordination pattern itself, but most importantly on its variability during practice, including concerning initially stable coordination patterns.
      279  51
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Information and communication technology as an enabler for implementing nonlinear pedagogy in physical education: Effects on students' exploration and motivation
    (2022) ; ;
    Kawabata, Masato
    ;
    Choo, Corliss Zhi Yi
    In the twenty-first century the Physical Education (PE) landscape is ever changing, with students being immersed increasingly in technologically driven learning environments. Therefore, there is a need to understand how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are impacting learning opportunities. Specifically, how pedagogical practices could benefit from the development of ICT. This study investigated the effect of using ICT in PE when it is accompanied by a pedagogical innovation to promote students’ motivation. Thirty participants from 5 different indoor climbing PE classes were involved. Three experimental conditions were used: (1) Control, a regular climbing lesson, where traditional climbing holds are used, (2) Placebo climbing lesson, where participants climbed on an instrumented climbing wall with electronic climbing holds but the content of the lesson was similar to the regular condition, and (3) Nonlinear Pedagogy climbing lesson, where participants also climbed on the instrumented wall but with technology used in this context to implement innovative tasks routed on Nonlinear Pedagogy concepts (i.e., fostering motor exploration). Participants were involved in all three conditions and at the end of each condition, and they completed a survey set on their experiences in the climbing lessons. Compared to the control and placebo conditions, external regulation and tension scores were significantly lower and enjoyment scores were significantly higher during the Nonlinear Pedagogy climbing lesson. These results indicated that when integrated with a clear pedagogical purpose, ICT could positively impact learners.
    Scopus© Citations 8  100
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Between exploitation and exploration of motor behaviours: Unpacking the constraints-led approach to foster nonlinear learning in physical education
    (2019) ;
    Potdevin, François
    ;
    Chollet, Didier
    ;
    Seifert, Ludovic
    Introduction The constraints-led approach (CLA) and more generally a complex systems perspective on motor learning emphasizes the role of perceptual-motor exploration during learning in order to ensure the acquisition of a highly individualized, adapted and adaptable movement pattern. Recent studies have shown that human beings have a strong tendency to exploit already stable patterns rather than looking for new potentially more efficient patterns. In order to shape the amount of exploration, we implemented two learning designs based on a CLA where constraints were used to limit the boundaries of the perceptual-motor workspace of the learners. We sought to highlight how practitioners can play with the perceptual motor workspace boundaries in order to i) promote the use of exploratory behaviours and ii) guide the learner towards task-relevant functional areas.
    Method For the experiment, twenty-four beginners in breaststroke swimming were allocated to three groups of learning: a control group receiving only the goal of the learning, an analogy group receiving the goal of learning accompanied by an analogy about “how to perform”, a pacer group receiving information on the goal of learning and the use of a metronome to continuously push them to “perform better”. Based on their assigned group, each learner then followed a learning protocol of 16 sessions with a 10*25m swimming distance per session with the goal of increasing the stroke length for a fixed swimming speed. Both performance (i.e., stroke length) and motor behaviour (i.e., arm-leg coordination) were collected for each session. The arm-leg coordination patterns were computed by the continuous relative phase between knee and elbow angles. Thereafter, a cluster analysis was performed on the coordination in order to get a qualitative label for every cycle performed during the entire process of learning. Based on the use of cluster analysis, an exploration/exploitation ratio was calculated and the increase in performance was determined based on the increase in stroke length.
    Results and Discussion With reference to the exploration/exploitation ratio, our results showed that additional temporary constraints led learners to increase both the nature of their exploration and also the quantity of their exploration. In the meantime, the three groups showed an equivalent final performance enhancement. The aim of manipulating the constraints was not only to push the learner out of his comfort zone, but also to provide relevant information about “where” to explore during learning. For this purpose, the use of analogy appeared as the most relevant constraint to encourage the emergence of efficient behaviour. Interestingly the impact of the analogy was modified by adding the metronome, showing an interaction effect of both constraints. The group using the metronome exhibited different behaviours as compared to the analogy group and showed an increase in exploration during learning compared to the control group. However, although the metronome constantly pushed the learner to improve performance, it did not actually lead to a better improvement of performance when compared to the analogy group. The simple assumption that the constraints forced the learner to explore therefore does not seem a mandatory condition to promote an exploratory learning. Rather, the qualitative nature of the constraint seems the most relevant characteristic that can be manipulated to promote an exploratory learning by guiding the learner within the perceptual motor workspace.
    WOS© Citations 33Scopus© Citations 39  119  445