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    An acoustic and auditory analysis of the labiodental /r/ in Singapore English
    The consonant /r/ in the English language possesses a variety of allophones, the most common being the post-alveolar approximant [R]. Amongst these allophones is a variant commonly described as a labiodental approximant and represented by the symbol, [√]. It has received much attention in the study of phonology in British English and is a feature whose existence is not only acknowledged by speakers of British English but has also, traditionally, been viewed with negative connotations of defective speech, infantilism, effeminate speech and affectation. However, the labiodental approximant [√] seems to be a feature common in the speech of young adults. In recent times, there also appears to be a dichotomy in attitudes towards this feature as it becomes ‘established as an acceptable feature of mature speech in non-standard accents in the south-east of England’ (Foulkes & Docherty, 2000: 30). This feature, however, has not received the same amount of attention in research done on pronunciation in Singapore English. Deterding (2007) and Kwek (2005) reported the existence of the labiodental approximant [√] in the speech of some young speakers of Singapore English, presenting preliminary findings of its existence and attitudes of Singaporeans towards the use of this variant of /r/.

    This study aims to further substantiate previous claims by providing acoustic evidence that the labiodental approximant [√], a variant distinct from the more common post-alveolar approximant [R], is indeed present in Singapore English. It also provides further auditory analysis of the phonological environments and users of this variant. In addition, it suggests a detailed plan for further investigation of not only the labiodental approximant [√] but also other phenomena of /r/ in Singapore English. The acoustic analyses showed that the labiodental approximant [√] is present in Singapore English and how it can be differentiated by the comparisons of the nadir values of the third formants as well as the calculations of third formant rises at the onset of the following vowels. However, it should be noted that auditory analysis is an important consideration in order to provide a clearer picture of the labiodental approximant [√] in Singapore English. The auditory analysis showed that young speakers of Singapore English use both the labiodental approximant [√] as well as the post-alveolar approximant [R]. Findings suggest that the labiodental approximant [√] is used more by female speakers and it tends to appear more in informal speech. The labiodental approximant [√] was found to be used in three environments – word-/syllable-initially, intervocalically and most commonly in word-/syllable-initial consonant clusters. It also appears to be followed, most frequently, by back rounded vowels. By way of conclusion, suggestions for further research are then given.
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    The labiodental /r/ in Singapore English
    The labiodental [U] has long been a topic of discussion in British English. It has been frequently looked at with a disdainful eye, being associated with defective speech, infantilism, effeminate speech and affectation. However, current research sees it slowly becoming 'established as an acceptable feature of mature speech in non-standard accents in the south-east of England' (Foulkes & Docherty, 2000: 30). Though much research has been done in British English, [U] has not been covered when it comes to describing the pronunciation in Singapore English.

    This study shows that [U] is indeed present in Singapore English. It describes the acoustic features of [U] in Singapore English and also provides further descriptions of the use of this variant. In addition, it aims to investigate and evaluate Singaporeans' perceptions towards the use of [U] in Singapore English.

    Through acoustic analyses, it was found that [U] is present in Singapore English but may not be the same as that in British English. However, acoustic analysis was also found not very reliable and has to be accompanied by auditory perceptions. Through auditory perceptions, descriptions of the use of [U] in Singapore English as we11 as Singaporeans' perceptions towards the use of [U] were obtained. Singapore English speakers were found to use [U] in three environments - word-nitial, after a consonant in the onset and intervocalic. However; they do not use this variant consistently and the use of [U] is perceived by Singaporeans as more childish and perhaps more non-standard.
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    Emergent features of young Singaporean speech: An investigatory study of the labiodental /r/ in Singapore English
    Amongst the variety of /r/ allophones is a labialised variant commonly described as the labiodental approximant [ʋ]. This seems, in recent times, to have become quite a common variant for young British English speech and is ‘established as an acceptable feature of mature speech in non-standard accents in the south-east of England’. Deterding and Kwek have also reported the existence of the labiodental approximant [ʋ] in the speech of some young speakers of Singapore English, presenting preliminary impressionistic findings of its existence and attitudes of Singaporeans towards its use. This article further substantiates these previous claims by providing acoustic evidence that the labiodental approximant [ʋ] is indeed present in Singapore English and that it can be differentiated from the more common post-alveolar approximant [ɹ] by comparing the nadir values of their third formants as well as the calculations of third formant rises towards the onset of following vowels. The article also provides further empirical evidence of the phonological environments that condition the realisation of this variant and also of its users. At its core, this article sets the foundations for further phonetic and phonological studies of /r/ variants in Singapore English.
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    Repositioning Singlish in Singapore's language-in-education policies
    Singapore’s language-in-education policies have always prescribed that only a standard variety of English be allowed in teaching and learning. This view of upholding a standard has been pervasive not only in education but also throughout Singapore’s society. In this article, we review Singapore’s language policy, emphasizing the functional polarization of languages ideology that serves as its basis, and discuss the resultant natural emergence of the key linguistic marker of Singaporean national identity – Singlish. Charting the journey and growth of Singlish’s role and status from both official and socio-cultural perspectives, we highlight that changes can be observed. It is, thus, imperative that Singlish’s place in language classrooms and the affordances that Singlish has for language learning be reconsidered. Following a discussion of salient Singlish features, highlighting their appropriacy in social situations where standard English features are not and the fact that many Singapore English features are recognizably shared by both Singlish and Singapore Standard English, we propose a linguistic feature-based contrastive analysis approach for Singapore’s English language classrooms. At the core, we call for a review of Singapore’s language-in-education policies and the support of various stakeholders in the bid to nurture confident and effective English language users of the future.
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