Rajdeep Singh Rawat
Now showing 1 - 10 of 86
- PublicationOpen AccessD(3He,p)4He and D(d,p)3H fusion in a small plasma focus operated in a deuterium helium-3 gas mixtureA 3 kJ plasma focus was operated with a 3He-D2 gas mixture, with partial pressures in the ratio of 2:1, corresponding to an atomic number ratio of 1:1 for 3He and D atoms. The fusion reactions D(3He,p)4He and D(d,p)3H were measured simultaneously using CR-39 polymer nuclear track detectors placed inside a pinhole camera positioned on the forward plasma focus axis. A sandwich arrangement of two 1000 μm thick CR-39 detectors enabled the simultaneous registration of two groups of protons with approximate energies of 16 MeV and 3 MeV arising from the D(3He,p)4He and D(d,p)3H reactions, respectively. Radial track density distributions were obtained from each CR-39 detector and per-shot average distributions were calculated for the two groups of protons. It is found that the D(3He,p)4He and D(d,p)3H proton yields are of similar magnitude. Comparing the experimental distributions with results from a Monte Carlo simulation, it was deduced that the D(3He,p)4He fusion is concentrated close to the plasma focus pinch column, while the D(d,p)3H fusion occurs relatively far from the pinch. The relative absence of D(d,p)3H fusion in the pinch is one significant reason for concluding that the D(3He,p)4He fusion occurring in the plasma focus pinch is not thermonuclear in origin. It is argued that the bulk of the D(3He,p)4He fusion is due to energetic 3He2+ ions incident on a deuterium target. Possible explanations for differing spatial distributions of D(3He,p)4He and D(d,p)3H fusion in the plasma focus are discussed.
- PublicationOpen AccessCurrent sheath formation dynamics and structure for different insulator lengths of plasma focus deviceThe breakdown phase of the UNU-ICTP plasma focus (PF) device was successfully simulated using the electromagnetic particle in cell method. A clear uplift of the current sheath (CS) layer was observed near the insulator surface, accompanied with an exponential increase in the plasma density. Both phenomena were found to coincide with the surge in the electric current, which is indicative of voltage breakdown. Simulations performed on the device with different insulator lengths showed an increase in the fast ionization wave velocity with length. The voltage breakdown time was found to scale linearly with the insulator length. Different spatial profiles of the CS electron density, and the associated degree of uniformity, were found to vary with different insulator lengths. The ordering, according to the degree of uniformity, among insulator lengths of 19, 22, and 26 mm agreed with that in terms of soft X-ray radiation yield observed from experiments. This suggests a direct correlation between CS density homogeneity near breakdown and the radiation yield performance. These studies were performed with a linearly increasing voltage time profile as input to the PF device.
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- PublicationOpen AccessApplication of plasma focus device for deposition of nanostructured magnetic thin films and ion-irradiation induced nanostructuring of PLAD grown magnetic thin filmsThe dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a coaxial plasma gun that uses a large electric current to heat and compress a gas to high temperatures (1-2 keV), densities (1025-26 m-3) and pressures (thousands of atmospheres). Under such extreme conditions, the gas radiates copious ultraviolet, X-rays and particle beams such as relativistic electrons and ion beams. At Plasma Radiation Sources Laboratory (PRSL), NIE, Singapore, our group has six plasma focus devices and our research efforts encompass a very wide range of topics covering various fundamental aspects of plasmas to the application of this device to lithography, soft and hard x-ray imaging, material modification and thin film deposition. This review paper reports the use of single shot and “repetitive” PF device for processing and deposition of thin films using plasma focus devices. To synthesize the magnetic thin films, the conventional hollow copper anode was substituted with an anode fitted with suitable material tip (FeCo or CoPt). Si wafer and copper mesh were placed axial down the anode axis at a suitable distance of about 25 cm above the anode top to improve the uniformity of deposited samples over bigger substrate size. The plasma focus device is operated at 1 Hz repetition rate at various combinations of charging voltage and filling pressure of hydrogen gas for different number of focus deposition shots. For the processing of thin films, the magnetic thin films of FePt were initially deposited using pulsed laser deposition and later exposed to energetic ions from hydrogen operated plasma focus device. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized and processed thin films are investigated using TEM, SEM, XRD and VSM, respectively. The paper will also discuss the fundamental of thin film deposition and irradiation mechanisms in plasma focus devices.
- PublicationOpen AccessPMT-scintillator system set up for D-D neutron TOF measurements in INTI plasma focus deviceThis paper summarizes a Photomultiplier-Scintillator diagnostic system for use in our plasma focus experiments at the Center for Plasma Research INTI IU. The system features an anode-grounded high pulse linearity voltage divider and uses NE102A plastic scintillators. It has detected D-D neutrons in INTI plasma focus device with clear and high signal to noise ratio. Neutron TOF of 120 ns has been measured from the time difference between hard x-ray pulse peak and neutron peak time over a flight path of 2.6±0.01 m; giving energy of 2.5±0.1 MeV for these side-on neutrons.
- PublicationMetadata onlyDetermination of the tricritical point, H-T phase diagram and exchange interactions in the antiferromagnet MnTa2O6(2022)
;Maruthi, R. ;Mohindar S. Seehra ;Sayandeep Ghosh ;Rohit Medwal ; ;Weise, Bruno ;Choi, Eun SangSubhash ThotaUsing the analysis of the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization (M) measured in the temperature range of 1.5 K to 400 K in magnetic fields up to 250 kOe, the magnetic field-temperature (H–T) phase diagram, tricritical point and exchange constants of the antiferromagnetic MnTa2O6 are determined in this work. X-ray diffraction/Rietveld refinement and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the polycrystalline MnTa2O6 sample verified its phase purity. Temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility χ (=M/H) yields the Néel temperature TN = 5.97 K determined from the peak in the computed ∂(χT)/∂T vs T plot, in agreement with the TN = 6.00 K determined from the peak in the CP vs T data. The experimental data of CP vs T near TN is fitted to CP = A|T − TN|−α yielding the critical exponent α = 0.10(0.13) for T > TN (T < TN). The χ vs T data for T > 25 K fits well with the modified Curie–Weiss law: χ = χ0 + C/(T − θ) with χ0 = −2.12 × 10−4 emu mol−1 Oe−1 yielding θ = −24 K, and C = 4.44 emu K mol−1 Oe−1, the later giving magnetic moment μ = 5.96 μB per Mn2+ ion. This yields the effective spin S = 5/2 and g = 2.015 for Mn2+, in agreement with g = 2.0155 measured using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Using the magnitudes of θ and TN and molecular field theory, the antiferromagnetic exchange constants J0/kB = −1.5 ± 0.2 K and J⊥/kB = −0.85 ± 0.05 K for Mn2+ ions along the chain c-axis and perpendicular to the c-axis respectively are determined. The χ vs T data when compared to the prediction of a Heisenberg linear chain model provides semiquantitative agreement with the observed variation. The H–T phase diagram is mapped using the M–H isotherms and M–T data at different H yielding the tricritical point TTP (H, T) = (17.0 kOe, 5.69 K) separating the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and spin-flop phases. At 1.5 K, the experimental magnitudes of the exchange field HE = 206.4 kOe and spin-flop field HSF = 23.5 kOe yield the anisotropy field HA = 1.34 kOe. These results for MnTa2O6 are compared with those reported recently in the isostructural MnNb2O6. 241WOS© Citations 4
- PublicationOpen AccessA mechanically reliable transparent antifogging coating on polymeric lenses(2021)
;Sun, Ye ;Chen, ZhongPolymeric lenses have been increasingly used to replace glass lenses due to advantages of light weight, high refractive index, and ease of making into complicated shapes. However, a severe constraint to their wider application lies with their intrinsic weakness in hardness that can lead to mechanical damages by abrasion. During service, fogging remains another unsolved challenge to optical lenses, which may significantly reduce the users’ visibility or even cause accident. Therefore, it is imperative to develop mechanically reliable and transparent antifogging coating on polymeric lenses. In this work, a two-step protocol is developed comprising a room-temperature oxygen plasma treatment of polymer substrate followed by antifogging silica thin film deposition using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The oxygen plasma treatment modifies the surface chemistry to allow a strong adhesion between the polymer substrate and the silica coating. Due to the porous nature of the PLD deposited nanosilica film, the coating also displays an antireflection effect. This mechanically reliable and highly transparent superhydrophilic silica coating opens great opportunity for the eyewear and high precision optics industries. Scopus© Citations 7 53 49WOS© Citations 5
- PublicationMetadata onlyHigh energy density pulsed argon plasma synthesized nanostructured tungsten for damage mitigation under fusion relevant energetic he ion irradiationTungsten (W) is considered as one of the promising candidates for plasma facing components in fusion reactors since it has high threshold energy, high melting point, low threshold shock resistance, and resistance against formation of co-deposits with tritium. Despite these commendable features, helium ions produced during fusion reaction are known to alter the microstructure of tungsten. In this work, dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used to study the effect of helium ion flux on double forged tungsten samples delivering a heat load of 6.27×104J/m2 per shot. The irradiation of virgin W samples is carried out at 5, 10, and 15 DPF helium shots. High heat loads resulted in blisters and micro-cracks on the sample surface. With an increase in the number of shots, the density of the blisters increased and craters on the W surface burst followed by re-solidification of the melted and sputtered surface. Surface nano-structurization, with nanoparticle formation, of W samples (nano-W) is realized by high-energy argon ion exposure of virgin samples in an argon filled DPF device. The average size of nanoparticles is found to increase with the number of shots and also leads to particle agglomeration. At 10 shots, uniformly distributed highly dense nanoparticles of 20–50 nm size have been synthesized. The nano-W samples are then irradiated by instability-accelerated high-energy helium ions in helium filled DPF device for 5, 10, and 15 shots to simulate fusion relevant conditions. The presence of the trapped helium bubbles in virgin-W and nano-W are examined by BSE imaging and XRD, respectively. The nanostructured tungsten shows improved structure and surface properties against Helium ion irradiation.
- PublicationOpen AccessNeutron and high energy deuteron anisotropy investigations in plasma focus deviceThe anisotropies of neutron and high energy deuteron emissions from the NX2 plasma focus device [M. V. Roshan et al., Phys. Lett. A373, 851 (2009)] are studied. The nuclear activation of graphite targets is used to measure the fluences of high energy deuterons in the axial and radial directions. Two bismuth germanate scintillation detectors connected to multichannel analyzer systems are used for the detection of 511 keV gamma rays resulting from positron annihilation in the two targets. In addition, fast neutron activation detectors are employed to measure the axial and radial fluences of fusion neutrons. These detection systems are calibrated using the simulation code MCNPX [L. S. Waters et al., AIP Conf. Proc.896, 81 (2007)]. Two distinct regimes of neutron and deuteron anisotropies are observed for the NX2 device. For deuterium gas pressures below 10 mbar, the neutronanisotropy increases with increasing pressure, while the overall neutron yield remains low. For gas pressures of 10–14 mbar, the neutronanisotropy is essentially constant, while, with increasing pressure, the neutron yield rises rapidly and the deuteron anisotropy falls.
Scopus© Citations 21 208 239WOS© Citations 19
- PublicationOpen AccessChallenges and applications to operando and in situ TEM imaging and spectroscopic capabilities in a cryogenic temperature range(2021)
;Tyukalova, Elizabeth ;Vas, Joseph Vimal ;Ignatans, Reinis ;Mueller, Aaron David ;Rohit Medwal ;Imamura, Masaaki ;Asada, Hironori ;Fukuma, Yasuhiro ; ;Tileli, VasilikiDuchamp, MartialIn this Account, we describe the challenges and promising applications of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. Our work focuses on two areas of application: the delay of electron-beam-induced degradation and following low-temperature phenomena in a continuous and variable temperature range. For the former, we present a study of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 lithium ion battery cathode material that undergoes electron beam-induced degradation when studied at room temperature by TEM. Cryogenic imaging reveals the true structure of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 nanoparticles in their discharged state. Improved stability under electron beam irradiation was confirmed by following the evolution of the O K-edge fine structure by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that the effect of radiation damage on discharged LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 was previously underestimated and that atomic-resolution imaging at cryogenic temperature has a potential to be generalized to most of the Li-based materials and beyond. For the latter, we present two studies in the imaging of low-temperature phenomena on the local scale, namely, the evolution of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic domains walls, in BaTiO3 and Y3Fe5O12 systems, respectively, in a continuous and variable temperature range. Continuous imaging of the phase transition in BaTiO3, a prototypical ferroelectric system, from the low-temperature orthorhombic phase continuously up to the centrosymmetric high-temperature phase is shown to be possible inside a TEM. Similarly, the propagation of domain walls in Y3Fe5O12, a magnetic insulator, is studied from ∼120 to ∼400 K and combined with the application of a magnetic field and electrical current pulses to mimic the operando conditions as in domain wall memory and logic devices for information technology. Such studies are promising for studying the pinning of the ferroelectric and magnetic domains versus temperature, spin-polarized current, and externally applied magnetic field to better manipulate the domain walls. The capability of combining operando TEM stimuli such as current, voltage, and/or magnetic field with in situ TEM imaging in a continuous cryogenic temperature range will allow the uncovering of fundamental phenomena on the nanometer scale. These studies were made possible using a MEMS-based TEM holder that allowed an electron-transparent sample to be transferred and electrically contacted on a MEMS chip. The six-contact double-tilt holder allows the alignment of the specimen into its zone axis while simultaneously using four electrical contacts to regulate the temperature and two contacts to apply the electrical stimuli, i.e., operando TEM imaging. This Account leads to the demonstration of (i) the high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy of nanoparticles oriented in the desired  zone-axis direction at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate the electron beam degradation, (ii) imaging of low-temperature transitions with accurate and continuous control of the temperature that allowed single-frame observation of the presence of both the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases in the BaTiO3 system, and (iii) magnetic domain wall propagation as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and current pulses (100 ns with a 100 kHz repetition rate) in the Y3Fe5O12 system. Scopus© Citations 10 302 80WOS© Citations 9
- PublicationOpen AccessEnhanced indirect ferromagnetic p-d exchange coupling of Mn in oxygen rich ZnO:Mn nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical methodThis paper investigates the ferromagnetism in ZnO:Mn powders and presents our findings about the role played by the doping concentration and the structural defects towards the ferromagnetic signal. The narrow-size-distributed ZnO:Mn nanoparticles based powders with oxygen rich stoichiometery were synthesized by wet chemical method using zinc acetate dihydrate and manganese acetate tetrahydrate as precursors. A consistent increase in the lattice cell volume, estimated from x-ray diffraction spectra and the presence of Mn 2p3/2 peak at 640.9 eV, in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic spectra, confirmed a successful incorporation of manganese in its Mn2+ oxidation state in ZnO host matrix. Extended deep level emission spectra in Mn doped ZnO powders exhibited the signatures of oxygen interstitials and zinc vacancies except for the sample with 5 at. % Mn doping. The nanocrystalline powders with 2 and 5 at. % Mn doping concentration were ferromagnetic at room temperature while the 10 at. % Mn doped sample exhibited paramagnetic behavior. The maximum saturation magnetization of 0.05 emu/g in the nanocrystalline powder with 5 at. % Mn doping having minimum defects validated the ferromagnetic signal to be due to strong p-d hybridization of Mn ions.
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