Huan Swee Leng, Vivien
Huan Swee Leng, Vivien
Psychology and Child & Human Development (PCHD)
Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
- PublicationOpen AccessInclusive education in Singapore primary school classroomsThe study aims to provide an insider perspective of inclusion in Singapore primary schools. Two hundred educators were interviewed about their perceptions and experiences of inclusion. Findings shed light on the definition and implementation of inclusion, teachers’ personal experience, perceived barriers to and facilitators of to inclusion, and its advantages and disadvantages. Inclusion as currently practised in Singapore is an integration pull-out model. Teachers shared slightly more negative than positive experiences and provided valuable insights into the challenges and rewards of inclusion. Teacher attitude, a critical factor for successful inclusion, is related to perceived school support. More than training, teachers need to experience success. There are implications for school leadership, training, class allocation for special needs, and assessment.
- PublicationOpen AccessHow teacher-student relationship influenced student attitude towards teachers and schoolThis study examines the influence of both student and teacher perception of the student-teacher relationship on student's attitude towards teachers and school. It also seeks to explore any gender differences in the perception of teacher-student relationship between male and female adolescents. A sample of 1,266 students (541 girls and 725 boys) from six different middle schools in Singapore participated in this study. Findings indicated that gender differences were observed for certain dimensions in the teacher-student relationship predicting their attitude towards teachers and school. Possible explanations for the obtained results were suggested and implications of the findings were also discussed.
- PublicationRestrictedThe relationship between different parenting techniques and the social adjustment of adolescents(1998)This study was undertaken to examine the effects that different parenting techniques have on the social adjustment of adolescents between the ages 14 and 17. The investigation focused on the perceptions of these adolescents on their parents' parenting techniques which basically comprise of the authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting styles. In addition, the study also looked at the home background, the educational levels as well as the occupational types of the parents, and the types of the parents, and the types of offences committed by the adolescents.
The sample consists of two groups of adolescents, namely, the non-delinquent group and the delinquent group. The non-delinquent group comprises of 224 fourteen year-old boys and girls who came from the express steam of two secondary schools. There were 156 girls and 68 boys in this group of subjects. For the delinquent group, there were a total of 135 subjects who were from the age range of 14 to 17 years. There were 54 girls and 81 boys in this group of adolescents. A General Information Questionnaire which is used to obtain the subject's bio-data, and an adapted version of the Buri's Parental Authority Questionnaire were used to gather data for this study. Both questionnaires were administered to the two different groups by the researcher herself.
Findings of the study revealed that there was a significant difference found between the type of parenting techniques employed by parents of non-delinquent adolescents and those employed by the parents of the delinquents. The data collected showed that the non-delinquents have obtained significant higher scores than the delinquents in the authoritative parenting sub-scale whereas the latter has obtained significant higher scores in the permissive, authoritarian and neglectful parenting sub-scales. This means that the non-delinquents' parents tended to employ parenting skills which fitted the authoritative style, whereas the parents of the delinquent group employed parenting techniques that were namely, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful in style.
The data collected from the bio-data section showed that the two groups of adolescents also differed in terms of their home background, their parents' educational levels and occupational types as well as the type of offences committed. More than 90% of the subjects from the non-delinquent group came from homes where both parents were present, compared to the delinquent group who had slightly more than 50%. About a third of the delinquent girls and boys came from homes which had less than two parents living with them.
In terms of educational levels, all the parents of the non-delinquent group have at least secondary education compared to more than half from the delinquent group who had only primary education. Data on the occupational types of the two groups yielded distinct differences. More than 75% of fathers of the non-delinquent group held white-collared or skilled jobs whereas about 60% of the delinquent group's fathers are holding semi-skilled or unskilled jobs. However about half of the mothers from the non-delinquent group are full-time housewives compared to more than half of them from the delinquent group who have semi-skilled or unskilled jobs.
Besides, the delinquent group has also scored higher percentages than those from the non-delinquent group in the commitment of offences listed in the bio-data section. The delinquent group exhibited acts of deviance especially in offences such as rioting (21.3%) and drug-taking (20.9%). Within each group, the boys have also scored higher percentages in most of the offences committed, when compared to the girls' percentage scores.
- PublicationRestrictedPersonal and social identities among at-risk youths in the process of school-based peer mediation(2005)This thesis investigates the process of peer mediation from the perspectives of the social identity and self-categorization theories. Past research on peer mediation has focused on the positive outcomes of the peer mediation programme. Success of the programme in schools is based on anecdotal evidence, reduction in the number of discipline cases, and improvement in the students' academic grades. So far, not much research has been conducted to explain the process of peer mediation using a theoretical framework. Therefore this thesis aims to contribute a theoretical understanding in the mediation process by using tenets from the social identity and self-categorization theories to illuminate the role of social and personal identities in conflict resolution. These two theories explain group processes by addressing the role of identity in influencing an individual's perceptions and behaviors as a group member, and are therefore relevant for understanding processes in the group-based peer mediation programme.
Social identity theory states that individuals affiliate and identify with others whom they perceived to be similar to them, and categorize them as part of their in-group through social comparison. In their own social groups, group members would engage in inter-group comparison in an effort to achieve positive in-group distinctiveness and subsequently, a positive social identity. If individuals in conflict are perceived to belong to the same in-group, it is hypothesized that they would be more positive in resolving their conflicts amiably. The parties involved in a peer mediation session include a student mediator whose role is to facilitate and help resolve the conflict between the aggressor or offender and his victim who are both directly involved in the conflict. Whether the offender perceives the mediator and victim as in-group or out-group members during mediation is important for the successful resolution of conflicts.
Study One showed how the offender would identified more with the mediator who is an ex-gang member (or ex-gangster) with a similar social identity, than with a mediator who is a school prefect with social identity that is different from his, during a mediation session. The offender also had more positive perceptions about the outcome of the mediation session when the conflict was mediated by the mediator who used to be a gang member than when it was mediated by the prefect. The salience of the social identity was further demonstrated in the Study Two where the offender had higher levels of identification and more positive perceptions of the mediation outcome, for a victim who is an ex-gangster (similar social identity) than for a prefect victim (different social identity). Significantly higher levels of empathy were expressed by the offender for the ex-gangster victim during mediation. The study also established the salience of the victim's identity during peer mediation. It was observed that regardless of the mediator's social identity, the offender's response to the mediation of conflict was influenced by the victim's social identity. Therefore, results from Studies One and Two of this thesis established the importance of matching the social identities between the offender and those involved in the mediation process, for effective mediation of conflicts in the mediation process.
However, conflicts are more likely to occur between youths of different social identities. Another argument put forward by this thesis is that unless the offender perceives the victim in terms of his personal identity instead of his social identity (which is different from the offender's), successful mediation of conflicts between these two youths might be impeded. The third study demonstrated that with a victim from a different social group, the offender was more likely to perceive him in terms of his social identity prior to mediation and displayed lower levels of empathy for him prior to mediation. During the mediation process, however, the victim was more likely to be perceived in his personal identity by the offender, who also expressed greater empathy for him. This shift in the offender's perception of the victim's identity from social to that of personal is crucial, as it influences the offender's level of cooperation to resolve the conflict, which subsequently contributes to the success of the mediation process.
Findings of the three studies suggest the utility of both social identity and self-categorization theories as frameworks for explaining the peer mediation process. Future research involving a programme evaluation of peer mediation in Singapore is also necessary as one is able to assess the different aspects of the intervention that contribute to different outcomes in a programme evaluation. Some aspects of the intervention may need to be enhanced to achieve their intended outcomes while other aspects found to be unnecessary and would thus be eliminated (Durlak, 1995). Through programme evaluation, effective components of the intervention are thus highlighted so that positive outcomes of the intervention can be enhanced. This research provides impetus for exploring the mediation process in relation to shame and the field of psycholinguistics.
- PublicationRestrictedParticipation in school-based co-curricular activities and student development: A motivation and engagement perspectiveCharacter, citizenship, and values are areas of education that have received increasing attention in the international community. This is also the case for Singapore (Lee, 2012) with an education system guided by the student-centric, values-driven philosophy (Ministry of Education [MOE], 2011, 2012). In his speech at the 2011 MOE Work Plan Seminar, Singapore’s Minister for Education at that time, Mr. Heng Swee Keat, highlighted, “We need to develop our children holistically, in all aspects – moral, cognitive, physical, social and aesthetic or what is termed in Chinese as 德智体群美 (de zhi ti qun mei)” (MOE, 2011, para. 16) and that, “… between academic achievement and values, it must not be “either/or”. We should strive to achieve both” (MOE, 2011, para. 53).
An important out-of-classroom experience recognised to play an important role in holistic development, character building, and 21st century skills and competencies is co-curricular activities (CCAs; Chong-Mok, 2010; MOE, 2010, 2011; Schwarz & Stolow, 2006). In Singapore, CCAs are an integral part of school curriculum and proposed to offer an authentic platform for (a) development of moral values, (b) acquisition and practice of soft skills, (c) social integration of children from differing backgrounds and ethnicities, (d) provision of safe learning environment, (e) opportunities for character and leadership development, and (f) lifelong pursuit of interests and greater outward expression (Chong-Mok, 2010; MOE, 2011). While participation in CCAs during primary education is not compulsory, CCAs are emphasized in secondary schools and categorized into Core (or Main) and Merit (or Secondary/Optional) CCAs. Core CCAs are mandatory for all students, whereas Merit CCAs are offered as an option for students with an interest in a particular CCA area. In both primary and secondary levels, the range of CCAs offered is categorized into four major groups: Physical Sports, Uniformed Groups, Visual and Performing Arts, and Clubs and Societies. With the increased investment in CCAs in Singapore schools (MOE, 2011, 2012), there is a priority to examine the potential impacts of CCAs on the holistic development of Singaporean students. This study was a timely response to this call.
- PublicationOpen Access
- PublicationOpen Access
- PublicationOpen AccessThe relationship between different parenting techniques and the social adjustment of adolescents(1999-12)
;Tan, EstherThis paper presents findings of a study that was undertaken to examine the relationship between different parenting techniques and the social adjustment of adolescents who are between the ages of 14 and 16. Using a General Information Questionnaire and an adapted version of John Buri’s Parental Authority Questionnaire, the study yielded results obtained from 2 different groups of adolescents. One group comprised of 224 students from two secondary schools in Singapore, while the other was made up of 135 adolescents from three residential homes for juvenile delinquents. Findings of the study revealed significant differences between the types of parenting techniques employed by the parents of the two different adolescent groups. The non-delinquents yielded scores which showed that their parents were more authoritative in their discipline techniques whereas the delinquents’ data indicated that their parents were more permissive and neglectful in their parenting. Gender differences were found in the authoritarian parenting sub-scale between the male and female adolescents. The two groups also differed significantly in terms of their home background, parents’ educational levels, occupational type and the types of offences they commit. In addition, the amount of interaction between parent and child, monitoring and supervision, also differed significantly between the two sample groups. 383 469