Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
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    Negotiating dichotomies, transcending boundaries: Investigating embodied knowing in the interplay of corporeality and digitality
    Arising from postmodern influences, notions of knowledge as absolute and foundational get increasingly challenged (Collins & Halverson, 2009; Gee & Shaffer, 2010; Dimmock & Walker, 2000). Instead, there now exists a concerted effort on the exploration of situatedness and contextuality of knowledge within which subjectivities are inscribed (Schon, 1987; Shaffer, 2010; Halpern, 2010). Parallel to this, the notion of corporeality takes on renewed significance in epistemological debates. Rather than thinking of knowledge as transcending the body, embodiment of knowledge has become a key factor in understanding the nature of knowledge and what it means to know (Dohn, 2002; Gallagher, 2005; Johnson, 2007; Gregersen & Grodal, 2009). Occupying the agendas of cultural and cyber theories of the last five decades, the concept of ‘body’ gets even more elusive with the permeation of technologies. The ‘disappearance’ of the body under conditions of digitality effectuate the presumption that contemporary media brings about a state of dematerialisation and disembodiment. It appears that modern technologies may have consequentially undermined the centrality of the body in cultural, social, and educational interactions. Yet, current conceptions of knowledge and learning are predicated on an embodied merging of mind and body. An epistemological reorienting toward the body coupled with a technological turn away from the body thus presents a dichotomy.

    Against this backdrop, this study seeks to clarify the notion of embodiment within a seemingly dichotomous interplay of corporeality and digitality. I ask three key questions: (i) How do informants conceive of body in the interplay of corporeality and digitality? (ii) What are the embodied knowing enactments arising from informants’ interplay of corporeality and digitality? and (iii) How do activities and structures within the interplay of corporeality and digitality bear upon informants’ embodied knowing and, by extension, identity becoming? Turning to the extremely popular immersive multiplayer game space, World of Warcraft (WoW) as an expedient and au courant context for corporeal and digital interplay, I investigated how modes of existing in WoW, of being-in-world, provide the phenomenological ground for youths’ embodied knowing as they construct identity, negotiate meaning, and make sense of their social experiences online. In understanding how body is conceived by informants, the emergent themes were: (i) instantiation of a phenomenal body in play, (ii) bodily repertoire from pre-reflective consciousness to organization of the corporeal schema, and iii) interplay of corporeal-perception and digital-action as enabling new ways of being-in-world. To unpack informants’ bodily enactments, three thematic categories of: i) domain practices, ii) discursive practices, and iii) disquisitional practices against self, social, and structural relations were observed. Finally, in analyzing the constructs underpinning embodied knowing and identity becoming, four thematic categories were reported: i) performative enactments, ii) bodily attunements, iii) affordance management, and iv) affectivity and inclinatory constructs.

    Drawing on these findings, I characterize a form of rhizomatic embodiment within current media sophistications which I argue to be a conceptual provision that can be used to reduce the analytical elusiveness of embodiment and overcome the gap in current understandings of how digital experiences account for new ways of meaning making and how one comes to know and hence to be within contemporary interactional spaces. I make an argument for a shift of attention from youth’s game play as an interpretive and manipulative activity of arbitrary representations and simulations to recognizing it as rhizomatically embodied material-digital possibilities that is accomplished through the mobilization of multiple modalities. To this end, this thesis is intended as a theoretical and substantive contribution to the study of body in relation to learning and becoming in present times, as it addresses the ontological and epistemological dissonances that confront this area, while seeking to derive possible implications for the institutionalized schooling milieu.
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  • Publication
    Open Access
    Developing a translating educational neuroscience clearinghouse for the differentiated instruction of diverse learners.
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2019) ;
    Chen, Annabel Shen-Hsing
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    ; ;
    Walker, Zachary
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    Hale, James B.
      395  293
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    Investigating identity becoming trajectories within the interplay of spatial and social dimensions of affinity spaces
    (Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 2020) ;
    Where the notion of education used to be (and still is) prevalently accepted as the teaching and learning within formalized settings, 21st century learners of today are developing highly sophisticated, and reflective literacies through participation and play with digital technologies. With the hybridization of learning with popular media culture, learners expect, and derive, little gratification from institutional contexts such as school. Such development implies an pressing need to understand the kinds of phenomena occurring in these so-called progressive (relative to current school practices) learnings and to consider the implications to present settings. Situating our study within the context of the extremely popular immersive multiplayer game space, World of Warcraft (WoW), this research is focused on the intertwining relationship between individual identity and the collective emergence and regulation of social communities within the activities transacted in the game and its related spaces. These issues are investigated in the informal learning space of online guild structures within WoW, while foregrounding central issues of identity and becoming that are core to contemporary media and literacies. The findings arising from this research are meant to inform design principles that will contribute to strongly coupled learning processes within both formal and informal contexts of learning.
      94  2
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Designing for game-based learning with technology

    The use of games for learning is ubiquitous in today’s classrooms. Numerous digital game based learning (DGBL) research has demonstrated enhanced learning outcomes in various areas, such as developing proficiency in cognitive skills, developing critical thinking and problem-solving dispositions, enhancing students’ motivation and engagement in challenging content areas and improving attention and overall learning experience. Yet we also encounter verbal cautionary statements about the excessive use of games particularly in areas of prospective addiction, overly dependence on gameplay, and social isolation of gamers. To address both cognitive and social issues associated with games, schools have integrated the teaching of cyber wellness during Character and Citizenship Education which focuses on the well-being of students as they navigate cyberspace. To further extend the effective use of games as an ICT modality. How can teachers, parents and students balance optimal use of games in education such that learning is maximised? What are the critical educational game aspects that teachers can take note of, in the current technology-dominated times, to enhance learners’ learning experiences and learning outcomes?

    In this chapter, we elucidate critical educational game-based learning aspects, harnessing the power of technology for optimal learning. These include four key aspects of (1) alignments between learning aims and assessment measurements, (2) harnessing technological affordances for enhanced design features, (3) integrating learning analytics to capture learning progression, and (4) designing appropriate contexts for gameplay that optimises both individual learning and social interactions. This chapter also aims to clarify terms such as gamification and game-based learning.

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  • Publication
    Open Access
    Game-based learning: The immersive learning experience
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2021) ;
    Poh, Meng Leng
      102  74
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Apprenticeship, epistemic learning, and diffusion of innovations in education
    Issues of innovation diffusion and its related tractability in schools remain key challenges in education research. At the Office of Education Research in Singapore, the authors have been working to develop a research program leveraging upon a school cluster system with the view to experimenting on the centralization and decentralization structures of Singapore's education system to enable scaling or the diffusion of innovations to occur. They posit that underpinning the structural aspects of diffusion is the notion of apprenticeship learning among teachers for epistemic change to occur. In this article, they define and outline how epistemic learning can occur at the teachers' level, articulating how leaders can provide the necessary socio-technological infrastructure to spread and sustain epistemic shifts for pedagogical change. To this end, they explore the use of the cluster system as an alternative approach and a proximal vehicle to build teacher capacity and to promote epistemic change in a more optimal manner in the context of innovation diffusion in education.
      390  636
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Learning across contexts: How students regulate their learning in an informal context
    (2011-01)
    Lim, Seo Hong
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    Kim, Mi Song
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    ;
    Primary school learners are often engaging in learning opportunities in both inside and outside of school contexts. To understand how these different contexts afford opportunities for metacognition and self-regulation, we follow local primary school students of elementary grades five and six. In Vygotsky's work, metacognition appears as an awareness of one's own thinking processes and the way they can be controlled and directed. For Vygotsky, metacognition and self-regulation are completely intertwined in which the latter takes the forms of control over one's attention, thoughts, and actions (Fox & Riconscente, 2008). Consequently, the understanding of these important constructs supports the understanding of human behavior, learning, and development within a broader context of all human activities. To explore the learning of metacognition and self-regulation in students' learning, we draw data from an informal context: a primary school, co-curricular activities (CCA), in bowling. Interpreting from a variety of data-collection techniques such as field observations, interviews, field notes, and video recording, the research team has been observing the bowling team's practices at least once a week since January 2010. Although the school's team comprises of more than thirty students, we targeted our observations to nine of these students. A further sub-section of two participants were selected and interviews were conducted to collect information on strategic planning, self-efficacy, and knowledge application. Moreover, artifacts such as written statements of the way their families assisted in their learning in an informal context were also collected. Preliminary findings indicate that learning in an informal context affords opportunities for metacognition and self-regulation in interesting and authentic ways. In addition, students point out that learning strategies can be used in both formal and informal contexts. The findings also illustrate the importance of linking students' development of metacognitive abilities to parental mentoring in providing a fuller understanding of their learning in both formal and informal contexts.
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    Investigative analysis and structured argumentation for seeding critical thinking and inquiry skills for the 21st century
    (Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 2020)
    Seah, Lay Hoon
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    This project was undertaken with the aim of developing and testing a pedagogical innovation—the Integrative Approach to Structured Argumentation (IASA) instruction model—for teaching science at the Lower Secondary level. The IASA instructional model aligns with the goals of the current curricular mandate for school-based scientific inquiry by promoting the practice of scientific argumentation. Engaging science learners in argumentation provides the interactional space in the classroom for them to develop 21st century skills, such as critical thinking and reasoning. Employing design-based research, we collaborated with 6 teacher-participants from two schools. Across the two and a half years of our work, we ran iterative cycles of designing learning and teaching resources, enacting the pedagogy, analysing the outcomes of implementation, and progressively redesigning and refining based on these outcomes. The project has completed the development and testing of three argument-based learning tasks on the topics of Heat, Chemical Changes, and Ecology, which are now contained in the IASA Toolkit lesson package available for download from the IASA website. We have also completed the development and testing of the IASA Web App that supports students’ argumentation activities (student interface) and teachers’ logistical work for argumentation tasks (teacher interface). We analysed students’ written arguments and peer feedback with respect to normative practices for reasoned coordination and assessment of claims and evidence and conventions for representing scientific arguments. The results indicate students demonstrating, over multiple exposures to argumentation tasks, gradual improvement in appropriating, and increased awareness of, the criteria for good scientific argumentation. This promising outcome suggests that the adoption of the IASA instructional model in the Singapore context could begin to address reform calls for science teaching to: (1) emphasise not only conceptual instruction but also the enculturation of science learners in the epistemic practices of the scientific community and (2) support and develop scientific literacy through productive participation in reading, writing, and talking scientifically.
      158  12
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Investigating projective identity trajectories for 21st century learning
    (2010) ; ;
    Chen, Der-Thanq
    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of studying identity in the context of 21st century learning. Identity is an evolving trajectory that is always in-flux or changing. In a fast changing 21st century, educators are recognizing the significance of identity work, in particular projective ident1ty, as individuals participate in multiple roles. The purpose of this article is to formulate key tenets for the study of projective identity in the form of role-play(s) as youth-participants navigate different social and spatial affinity spaces, and to describe why it is important to 21st century learning.
      167  111