Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
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    How rubrics are understood and used formatively
    The combination of qualitative and quantitative elements of a rubrics presents opportunities and challenges for its formative and summative uses. In this chapter, the formative use of rubrics begins with a discussion on the related notions of achievement, progress and success. Different purposes of assessment rubrics are contrasted to clarify what exactly makes a rubric fit for formative purpose. The question of what makes an assessment rubric formative is addressed, and examples of formative uses of rubrics in primary school, pre-university and higher education are presented and contrasted.
      18
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    The challenges of understanding and using rubrics
    In this chapter, assessment rubrics are discussed in the broad educational context of the contested nexus and tension(s) between curriculum, teaching and assessment. Each plays a distinct role that also offers a check on each other. Rubrics would have to be decoded in terms of its distinctive roles for curriculum, teaching and assessment, as well as how each would offer a common site for all three to exist in tension . Hence, rubrics should be appreciated for its complexity in prossessing a real risk of counterproductive outcomes. This requires underlying and underpinning agendas of rubrics to be discerned, and a sophisticated awareness of rubrics as implements of power and authority would be helpful.
      16
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    The anatomy of a rubric
    In this chapter, the structure or the anatomy of a rubric is explained. The term “rubrics” is perceived to be used in a variety of ways, not all of which are consistent. The anatomy of a rubric is explained as a way of defining a rubric in terms of its constitutive structure, and it is argued that a rubric essentially is a qualitative instrument comprising of qualitative descriptors of achievement standards and assessment standards and assessment criteria. Quantitative elements such as the scale and weighting of rubric may be added to increase the resolution of a rubric’s discrimination. Assessment rubrics serve the need to provide sufficient detail and clarity for the intended learning in the development of the rubric instrument. Yet, sufficient autonomy for subjective interpretation and educative autonomy of the users of a rubric needs to be accommodated. To the end, a suggested rubric is provided for readers to ascertain their understanding of the functions and complexities of assessment rubrics.
      25
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Is teach less, learn more a quantitative or qualitative idea?
    The Teach Less, Learn More (TLLM) initiative is a fairly recent discourse on the use of learning centered pedagogies in the Singapore Education System. First mentioned by the Prime Minister of Singapore in his National Day address in 2004, Teach Less, Learn More and its accompanying acronym TLLM is frequently mentioned in relation to ideas and practices aimed at enhancing student learning. However, the widespread use (and misuse) of the term may have given rise to some confusion over its precise meaning. This paper examines the underlying discourses of the TLLM initiative in the Singapore education system and questions whether it is understood in ways which are consistent with its original intentions. The term ‘Teach Less, Learn More’ itself suggests a strong tendency to interpret TLLM with a quantitative perspective. However, official statements pertaining to shifting the TLLM focus from “quantity to quality in education” indicate a qualitative intent. Quantitative and qualitative discourses share different origins and epistemologies. Consequently, the contrasting quantitative and qualitative understandings of the goals of education, the means of teaching, the manner of assessment and evaluation and the notion of student learning exists in tension with each other. The tension between quantitative and qualitative discourses in the Teach Less, Learn More initiative in the areas of curriculum, assessment and learning are explored in this paper and three possible ways to (re)interpret the Teach Less, Learn More initiative are suggested.
      969  1088
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Secondary teachers’ and students’ experiences of assessment feedback
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2022) ;
    Lipnevich, Anastasiya
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    ;
    Goh, Rachel Swee Peng
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    ;
    Lam, Karen
    ;
    Haslinda Ismail
      113  105
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    Rubrics for different types of learning and learners
    Rubrics risk portraying the complexities and nuances of learning in a grid categories that are designed to simplify, organize and thereby comfort users by generating predictability. But this may create stereotypes of learners and their learning needs and perpetuate the myth of the typical student. Careful attention needs to be given to the distinctive needs of different types of students, and how rubrics may be adjusted and used accordingly. In this chapter, examples are offered for bespoke rubric construction and application for special educational needs learners, pre-university learners and primary school learners. These contracts depict some of the diversity in any educational system – from young elementary learners, young adults and those with special educational needs.
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      21
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    Rubrics, power and conduct
    In describing the uses of assessment rubrics for formative and summative purposes, the utilitarian approach to rubrics assumes its positive effects and outcomes for teachers and students. But assessment itself is a political act which undeniably involves power. How rubrics embody and exercise power is addressed in Chapter 6, and three types of power are posited sovereign, epistemological and displinary power. In particular, student conduct rubrics may potentially be used for punitive rather than educative agendas. A variety of student conduct rubrics is examined and approaches for such rubrics to be constructed to emphasize virtues and values rather than culpability are discussed.
      20
  • Publication
    Open Access
    How teachers understand and use power in alternative assessment
    “Alternative assessment” is an increasingly common and popular discourse in education. The potential benefit of alternative assessment practices is premised on significant changes in assessment practices. However, assessment practices embody power relations between institutions, teachers and students, and these power relationships determine the possibility and the extent of actual changes in assessment practices. Labelling a practice as “alternative assessment does not guarantee meaningful departure from existing practice. Recent research has warned that assessment practices in education cannot be presumed to empower students in ways that enhance their learning. This is partly due to a tendency to speak of power in assessment in undefined terms. Hence, it would be useful to identify the types of power present in assessment practices and the contexts which give rise to them. This paper seeks to examine power in the context of different ways that alternative assessment is practiced and understood by teachers. Research on teachers’ conceptions of alternative assessment is presented, and each of the conceptions is then analysed for insights into teachers’ meanings and practices of power. In particular, instances of sovereign, epistemological and disciplinary power in alternative assessment are identified to illuminate new ways of understanding and using alternative assessment.
    WOS© Citations 8  170  384
  • Publication
    Embargo
    Teachers’ qualitatively different ways of experiencing assessment feedback: Implications for teacher assessment literacy
    (2023)
    Goh, Rachel Swee Peng
    ;
    Assessment feedback is an important aspect of teacher assessment literacy which can be understood along three interrelated dimensions: conceptual in terms of conceptions teachers have of feedback, praxeological regarding feedback practice, and socio-emotional which relates to how teachers attend to the emotional dynamics of assessment from the students’ perspective (Pastore & Andrade, 2019). This paper presents the findings of a phenomenographic study involving 15 teachers in Singapore schools that explored their qualitatively different ways of experiencing assessment feedback. Drawing on the variation theory perspective, the analysis of interview data resulted in five teachers’ conceptions of assessment feedback that shed light on the non-static nature of feedback engagement. These conceptions represent the variation in teachers’ qualitatively different ways of experiencing assessment feedback, and ranged from feedback as inspection of students (emphasizing mistakes) to feedback as introspection for students (emphasizing reflection on feedback). The findings show the potential that teachers can aspire to move from level to level, depending on contexts and students. Insights on the continuum of teacher assessment feedback literacy are drawn. Implications for developing teacher assessment literacy are discussed to assist teachers in reviewing their conceptions of assessment feedback beliefs and enhancing assessment feedback practices beyond improving academic learning.
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