Caleon Imelda Santos
Caleon Imelda Santos
Office of Education Research (OER)
Now showing 1 - 10 of 31
- PublicationOpen AccessCreating lifelong learners: Investigating metacognition as support for learning and learning transfer
- PublicationOpen AccessGeneralists to specialists: Transformative evidences and impediments to student-centered practices of primary music and art teachers in SingaporeThis article fills in the knowledge gap in the student-centered practices of generalist music and art teachers to prepare 21st century learners. The study shows that generalists, after completing a specialist professional development program, struggle the most in connecting subject matter knowledge to pedagogical knowledge, specifically student-centered classroom pedagogy. The study confirms previous literature on the shortfall of professional development training in adequately preparing generalists in the arts and supports the recommendations that advisory teachers and continuous professional development support are needed to increase the self-efficacy of generalists.
- PublicationRestrictedDevelopment, validation and application of a four-tier diagnostic test to assess secondary students’ conceptions of waves(2010)This study reports on the development, validation and application of a four-tier multiplechoice (4TMC) diagnostic instrument, which has not been reported in the literature. Each 4TMC item has a stem that is followed by the content tier, reason tier, and confidence tiers. The content tier and reason tier measure a respondent’s content knowledge and explanatory knowledge, respectively. The confidence tiers separately measure a respondent’s confidence in the correctness of his or response for the content tier and reason tier. The 4TMC test focused on waves, and was accordingly named the Wave Diagnostic Instrument (WADI). Using several indicators, the reliability of WADI was found to be low to moderate for the content and reason tiers, and moderate to high for the confidence tiers. The validity of inferences about students’ conceptions on waves that were derived from scores on WADI was fair to moderate.
The participants of the study were 931 upper secondary students from the Express and Special stream of 11 co-educational mainstream government schools. They took WADI after they were formally instructed on waves. Mean scores and mean confidence for the content tier were higher than those for the reason tier. The vast majority of the respondents were found to have an inadequate grasp of the topics tested. The students’ mean confidence was slightly above the neutral level. The students who have higher scores in WADI tended to have higher confidence levels (r=.28 to .35, p<.0001), and to have higher academic achievement (r=.28 to .43, p<.001). The students’ academic achievement was found to be weakly correlated with their confidence and confidence bias. The confidence levels of the males were statistically higher than those of the females (t> 4.61, p<.0001), but the test scores of both gender groups were found to be comparable. Confidence and test performance tended to increase when students are familiar with (i.e., formally instructed about) the concepts tested (t>2.95, p<.004).
The students were generally overconfident (i.e., their mean confidence level was beyond what was warranted by the accuracy of their responses), with males tending to be more overconfident than the females. The ability of students to discriminate between what they know and what they do not know, in terms of confidence, was low and was not significantly affected by their academic achievement and gender.
Fifty-eight alternative conceptions (ACs) were expressed by at least 10% of the sample, of which 24 were espoused confidently. Thirteen ACs were applied by more than 50% of the sample at least once. Seven ACs were expressed with high confidence, with the highest confidence being associated with ACs about the role of air in sound propagation and the graphical representation of waves. Six of the nine ACs that were associated with more than one item of WADI were found to be consistently applied by at least 10% of the sample; of these six ACs, two were consistently applied with confidence by at least 10% of the sample.
The students’ confidence ratings obtained using the 4TMC version of WADI was found to be statistically higher than those obtained using a content parallel three-tier version (which requires one confidence rating for both content tier and reason tier responses) of WADI (t=2.83, p<.05).
- PublicationRestrictedThe impact of cryogenics-based enrichment programmes on attitudes towards science and the learning of science concepts(2005)The impact of two cryogenics-based enrichment programmes (CBEPs) held in out-of-school setting on the learning of science concepts and attitudes towards science was evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The findings presented in this study are based on a sample of 531 Primary Five and Six students from six schools in Singapore who had their class enrichment lessons at the Snow City.
In general, students reported large significant learning gains immediately and two-weeks after their CBEP experience. The learning gains in relation to the CBEP involving liquid nitrogen remained stable after around two weeks but those for the participants of the CBEP involving liquid oxygen slightly waned. About 93% of the participants of the former and 88% of the latter reported cognitive test scores above pretest level around two weeks after their respective CBEP experience. Greater learning gains due to participation in either CBEP were recorded for EM1 than for EM2 students. CBEPs did not have any differential impact on the learning gains of boys and girls.
Regardless of gender and stream, CBEPs produced fairly significant improvements in the attitudes towards science of the participants, specifically in relation to enjoyment of science and motivation to pursue science careers; however, no significant change was detected in the participants' perceptions of the social implications of science. Although satistical tests revealed that the retention of the said attitudinal gains did not occur for most if the students who took retention test, 13 to 20% of such students were found with at least a three-point improvement in scores in the given attitude areas. A substantial proportion of the participants shifted from negative or neutral responses to positive responses for at least two items in both enjoyment of science and career preference subscales two weeks after participating in CBEP. The contents of such items point to the possible "ripple effects" of CEBPs in the participants' future activities that could eventually lead to better achievement and more stable attitude change.
Learning gains derived from CBEPs were found to be basically determined by academic ability while attitudinal gains were predominantly influenced by initial attitude towards science. EM1 students have greater propensity to learn more from CBEPs than EM2 students. These who have initially more positively attitude towards science tend to maintain or improve such level of attitude after experiencing CBEPs. Gender did not have any significant in determining the cognitive and affective benefits that students derived from CBEPs.
Additionally , positive association bewteen post-CBEP attitude towards science and learning of cryogenics-related concepts was detected. The causal direction of the association appears to be from attitude towards cognitive: meaning positive attitude leads to greater learning gains and not the other way around.
At least 92% of the subjects liked the CBEPs covered in this study and expressed willingness to attend similar programmes in the future. The students expressed recognition of both entertainment and educational value of the programmes. The CBEPs appeared slightly more appealing for females than males for EM1 than EM2 subjects of the study. The complexity of the topic and the degree of students participation are two factors that are of importance in relation to the likeability of a particular CBEP.
This study served as an appraisal of Snow City's CBEPs, as well as a pioneering work on the evaluation of cryogenics-based programmes. Its results have provided empirical evidence that Snow City can be venue for a novel learning experience that can generate positive cognitive and effective impact on students. The findings of this study have shown that CBEPs can benefit the majority of its participants, at least for upper primary students, regardless of gender and academics ability.
- PublicationOpen AccessMeasuring and nurturing teamwork competency through a computer-supported creative collaborative problem-solving programme.
- PublicationOpen AccessAttitudes towards science of gifted and non-gifted upper primary students(2004-11)
;Subramaniam, R. (Ramanathan)The attitudes towards science of gifted as compared to mainstream students have not yet been explored in the Singapore context. As attitudes towards science are very much associated with achievement and future decisions on the part of the students, and particularly useful in conceptualizing innovations for teachers and curriculum developers, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether differences in such attitudes exists between gifted and non-gifted students (divided into EMI and EM2 streams) and between boys and girls. A total of 653 upper primary students from co-educational government and government-aided schools were involved in this study. The attitude subscales included were enjoyment of science, appreciation of the social implications of science and preference for science careers. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), it was found that gender and ability had significant effects on all the three attitude subscales, but gender and ability interaction was significant only on the firi;t two subscales. Boys, in general, had more positive views about science than girls. Overall, the gifted and EM 1 students had comparable attitudes towards science; both of them consistently showed more positive attitudes than EM2 students. Such general findings were also mirrored in career preference subscale results. Gifted and EM1 boys viewed science as more enjoyable and as having more importance in society than EM2 students. Girls from different ability groups had similar views on enjoyment of science, but differences on perceptions of the social implications of science were prominent among EM 1 and EM2 girls. 147 213
- PublicationRestrictedAssessment and teaching of 21st century skills (ATC21S) Singapore trials: Collective creativity and collaborative problem-solving competencies among secondary school studentsCreativity, collaboration and critical thinking are recurrently featured in contemporary global learning frameworks as capacities essential to 21st century (21C) living and thriving. While these competences have long been upheld as integral to human progress, they were historically regarded as expressive affordances and educational aspirations ascribed to more elite groups in society. However, in today’s knowledge economies characterised by complexity and rapid change, these no longer remain the province of the privileged, but are central to one and all’s productive participation in local, global and virtual societies. This is now more of an empirical fact than rhetoric. Economists have shown in a suite of recent studies that cognitive academic skills only account for 20 percent of labour-market outcomes, while 21st century skills such as collaboration and creativity emerged as much stronger drivers of workplace and life success (Levin, 2012).
Yet, there is little doubt that the dynamic and non-linear nature of 21C skills and their constitutive interactional processes are posing significant challenges to conventional practices of teaching and assessment today. Despite notable international efforts in the teaching, learning and assessment of collaborative and creative problem-solving skills in recent years, clear empirical insights that illuminate the relationships between students’ creative competencies and their problem-solving success on ill-defined collaborative tasks remain elusive.
Our research project aimed to address this knowledge gap by turning the lens of inquiry towards the interactional dialogic processes through which Singapore secondary school students accomplished their collaborative and creative problem-solving tasks online. By (i) using secondary data generated from the international Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) research programme’s Singapore school trials that captured student-pairs’ chat logs as they jointly solved ill-defined problem tasks online, and (ii) drawing from theoretical and methodological advancements in the fields of creativity and computer-supported collaborative problem-solving (CPS), we sought to first develop and validate a discourse-based analytic framework for characterising and measuring collective creativity (CC) competencies; then to explore the empirical relationships between CC competencies and collaborative problem-solving (CPS) success among Singapore secondary school students.
- PublicationOpen AccessLocal evidence synthesis on teaching & learning of 21st century competencies
- PublicationOpen AccessWhere are we now? Research trends in the learning sciencesTowards gaining a better understanding of the field of the Learning Sciences, this research investigates the research trends over 10 years. It also compares the Learning Sciences with the closely related academic fields of Educational Technology and Educational Psychology. A content analysis is performed on 5187 journal articles drawing from 12 top journals from 2003 to 2012. This content analysis was semi-automated and guided by an initial theoretical frame. The results reveal that research trends in the Learning Sciences have remained largely consistent except in the area of individual differences and affect, which has increased over the years. Key strengths of Learning Sciences include research on small group learning, inquiry, problem solving, argumentation, and mixed-methods. As the LS reflects on its state of practice, it should recognize that the field has achieved many research distinctives, yet, there are several opportunities for further research growth.
- PublicationOpen AccessNurturing positivity: A positive psychology intervention to enhance well-being, engagement, and achievement among at-risk students.