Now showing 1 - 10 of 28
  • Publication
    Open Access
      82  97
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Uses of video in educational research
    While most are familiar with the idea of using a video camera as a generic recording device, a deeper understanding of what happens “behind the camera”; the biases that audio and video recording usually are accompanied with; and the type and level of analysis of recorded footage, is still largely lacking in many educational research communities. In this paper, a quick survey of some technical, methodological, and analytic issues is presented with a view to introduce to the reader some established paths to pursue for further study. A brief presentation of work attempted elsewhere is also offered, and several suggestions for incorporating video into research in the local context are proposed for the reader’s consideration.
      105  1789
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Makerspaces in Singapore: Pedagogical principles for innovation
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2016)
      48  93
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Making, innovation, and science education: Considering two layers of analysis
    (Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 2020)
    This study aims to document two layers of analysis concerning the educative benefits of making in makerspaces. While makerspaces are often closely associated with particular digital fabrication technologies in the public imagination, this study takes an expanded definition to include any sort of making that involves modifying materials according to one’s own plans, and not simply following instructions for assembly. While this would include conventional Design and Technology, Fabric work, and even Food and Nutrition, I have chosen to focus on the production of new scientific knowledge, especially through investigations that deal with electronic instrumentation and the imbuing of programmed behaviour through the use of simple electrical operations, or complicated micro-controller based designs. In Part 1 (reported here), I ask the question: what are the reasoning processes of students as they engage in creative problem solving tasks involving the making of an artefact?
      99  77
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Assessing the nature of science views of Singapore pre-service teachers
    (2003-11) ;
    Boo, Hong Kwen
    Despite the many developments in the teaching of science, an aspect that continues to be neglected appears to be the character and nature of science (NOS). This is becoming especially important in the light of recent developments in pedagogy, as, for example, more teachers adopt constructivist methodologies and computing technology enables simulations that may blur the lines between models and reality. From the literature, it is known that teachers' modern NOS conceptions, though not a sufficient condition for transmission of modem NOS views, is necessary. In this study, pre-service teachers' NOS conceptions are assessed with an adapted Views of the Nature of Science (VNOS) instrument, originally designed by Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, and Schwartz (2002). The modified instrument is an eight-item, open ended questionnaire - designed to elicit descriptive responses to common NOS misconceptions. Responses were analysed into coded categories of 'informed, 'uninformed, and 'ambiguous'. It was found that a significant proportion of teachers possessed uninformed views. Some implications for teaching and teacher education are presented in this paper for discussion.
      338  138
  • Publication
    Restricted
    Assessing the nature of science views of Singaporean pre-service science teachers
    Interest in the Nature of Science (NOS) has not been very significant in the local context, with school textbooks and curriculum documents offering very little in the way of utilising it as a central organising theme in the study of science. At the same time, calls are made to enhance scientific literacy, with no sense of irony over the omission of such a vitally important component. The NOS is deemed important beyond its central place in scientific literacy due to developments in pedagogy. For example, as more teachers adopt constructivist methodologies, there now exists a need to develop a robust defence of science from the philosophical positions undertaken by constructivism; in the face of computing technologies which enables simulations that blur the line between models and reality, we really need to educate learners of the epistemological considerations in developing our models of reality. It is known that teachers' informed NOS views, while being the necessary condition for their ability to engage in the NOS in the classrooms, is not sufficient. Factors like curriculum objectives, pressure to complete and conform to the syllabus, and poor administrative support stand in the way of effective implementation of NOS-rich curriculum in the classroom. For example, extrapolating from a study by Bell, Lederman, and Abd-El-Khalick (2000) in which the pre-service teacher sample subjects reported that preparation for lessons in the NOS took considerable time above normal lesson preparation; if time were not freed from other administrative duties, it would be hard to imagine how teachers could develop their NOS lessons effectively.

    At least in the local context, available research paints a rather bleak picture of the situation - the necessary condition is not even achieved. While this study does not find a significant difference from previous studies, it seeks out to remediate a major shortcoming : the previous studies have made use of unvalidated instruments, and were lacking in variety of NOS aspects assessed. In addition, this study extends the data set, providing a richer and more detailed analysis of NOS aspects rather than issuing a blanket pass/fail statement. Some suggestions for teaching and teacher education are also proposed for discussion.
      132  12
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Embodied search processes in creative problem solving: How do people learn in makerspaces?
    In creative problem solving, an essential component is the divergent idea generation phase before deciding on a plan of action for convergent, relatively well structured problem solving. In makerspaces and other sites where problems are posed in physical form, the material affordances of the objects and their spatial configurations can aid or hinder the search through problem space for possible solutions. In this study, we present the preliminary results of a study involving six pairs of grade eight students involved in a school makerspace context. Given sixteen little Bits modules housed in a small toolbox, along with some light construction materials, students were tasked to produce a prototype of a device that could attract teachers’ attention during class work sessions. The material actions that students made in early exploration of project ideas were correlated to the creative outcomes of their project.
      408  177
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Designing learning contexts using student-generated ideas
    (2016-06)
    Lam, Rachel Jane
    ;
    ;
    Gaydos, Matthew Joseph
    ;
    ;
    Seah, Lay Hoon
    ;
    ;
    Manu Kapur
    ;
    Bielaczyc, Katerine
    ;
    Sandoval, William
    This symposium proposes a genre of learning designs called Student-Generated Ideas (SGIs), based on designing learning contexts that promote students as critical producers, distributors, and consumers of knowledge. SGIs place students’ ideas at the center of learning designs, considering the learning process as well as the learning goals/outcomes. By soliciting and foregrounding students’ diversified ideas in the classroom and beyond, the learning environment communicates to students that their ideas matter to others and that they have a position of responsibility to their own and their peers’ learning processes. The notion of SGIs is embodied in a repertoire of studies at the Learning Sciences Lab, National Institute of Education, Singapore, that offer varied yet overlapping interpretations of how student ideas can inform the design of learning contexts. In sharing the core design principles for SGIs approaches, this work contributes important components to the learning sciences discipline and changing educational practice.
      619  789