Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
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    Fitness testing in schools internationally and locally: A systematic review
    (2018)
    Woo, Shu Xian Victoria
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    Physical fitness testing (PFT) in schools has been conducted over the past 50 years to monitor the fitness levels of schooling children and adolescents. This review will provide an overview of the various PFT available and compare implementation variations in different regions: United States (US), Europe, Canada, Australia and Asia. In addition, comparisons will be made regarding the fitness components assessed as well as the choice of test items. Most PFT assessed health-related components of fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, musculoskeletal strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition and agility. With exceptions from Japan and China. PFT were mostly criterion-referenced and tested for validity and reliability. The analysis of PFT has highlighted several changes over the years and reiterated the need for continual growth in research to better PFT for use in schools.
      303  7
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Integrative multiomics analysis reveals host-microbe-metabolite interplays associated with the aging process in Singaporeans
    (2022)
    Chen, Liwei
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    Zheng, Tingting
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    Chaudhary, Prem Prashant
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    Teh, Jean Pui Yi
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    Cheon, Bobby K.
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    Moses, Daniela
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    Schuster, Stephan C.
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    Schlundt, Joergen
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    Li, Jun
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    Conway, Patricia L.
    The age-associated alterations in microbiomes vary across populations due to the influence of genetics and lifestyles. To the best of our knowledge, the microbial changes associated with aging have not yet been investigated in Singapore adults. We conducted shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal and saliva samples, as well as fecal metabolomics to characterize the gut and oral microbial communities of 62 healthy adult male Singaporeans, including 32 young subjects (age, 23.1 ± 1.4 years) and 30 elderly subjects (age, 69.0 ± 3.5 years). We identified 8 gut and 13 oral species that were differentially abundant in elderly compared to young subjects. By combining the gut and oral microbiomes, 25 age-associated oral-gut species connections were identified. Moreover, oral bacteria Acidaminococcus intestine and Flavonifractor plautii were less prevalent/abundant in elderly gut samples than in young gut samples, whereas Collinsella aerofaciens and Roseburia hominis showed the opposite trends. These results indicate the varied gut-oral communications with aging. Subsequently, we expanded the association studies on microbiome, metabolome and host phenotypic parameters. In particular, Eubacterium eligens increased in elderly compared to young subjects, and was positively correlated with triglycerides, which implies that the potential role of E. eligens in lipid metabolism is altered during the aging process. Our results demonstrated aging-associated changes in the gut and oral microbiomes, as well as the connections between metabolites and host-microbe interactions, thereby deepening the understanding of alterations in the human microbiome during the aging process in a Singapore population.
    WOS© Citations 5Scopus© Citations 7  116
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Effects of consecutive versus non-consecutive days of resistance training on strength, body composition, and red blood cells
    (2018) ;
    Bay, Pang B.
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    Wang, Yongtai R.
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    Huang, Junli
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    Teo, Hilary W. J.
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    Goh, Jorming
    Health authorities worldwide recommend 2–3 days per week of resistance training (RT) performed 48–72 h apart. However, the influence of recovery period between RT sessions on muscle strength, body composition, and red blood cells (RBCs) are unclear. Aim: Examine the effects of three consecutive (C) or non-consecutive (NC) days of RT per week for 12 weeks on strength, body composition, and RBCs. Methods: Thirty young, healthy and recreationally active males were randomly assigned to 3 C ( 24 h between sessions) or NC ( 48–72 h between sessions) days of RT per week for 12 weeks. Both groups performed three sets of 10 repetitions at 10-repetition maximum (RM) of leg press, latissimus pulldown, leg curl, shoulder press, and leg extension for each session. Ten RM and body composition were assessed pre- and post-RT. RBC parameters were measured on the first session before RT, and 0 and 24 h post-3rd session in untrained (week 1) and trained (week 12) states. Results: No training group interaction was found for all strength and body composition parameters (p D 0.075–0.974). Training increased strength for all exercises, bone mineral density, and total body mass via increased lean and bone mass (p < 0.001). There was no interaction (p D 0.076–0.994) and RT induced temporal changes in all RBC parameters (p < 0.001–0.003) except RBC corrected for plasma volume changes (time training interaction; p D 0.001). Training increased hematocrit and lowered mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p D 0.001–0.041) but did not alter uncorrected RBC, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and RBC distribution width (p D 0.178–0.797). Conclusion: Both C and NC RT induced similar improvements in strength and body composition, and changes in RBC parameters.
      122  87
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Comparison of lower limb and back exercises for runners with chronic low back pain
    (2017)
    Cai, Congcong
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    Introduction: This single-blind randomized trial was conducted to compare the treatment effect of lower limb (LL) exercises versus conventional lumbar extensor (LE) and lumbar stabilization (LS) exercises in recreational runners with chronic low back pain (cLBP), since there is currently no specific protocol for managing runners with cLBP. Methods: 84 recreational runners with cLBP were allocated to three exercise groups (LL, LE, LS) for an 8-week intervention. Outcome measures included self-rated pain and running capability, lower limb strength, back muscles function, and running gait. Participants were assessed at pre-, mid- and end-intervention; selected outcomes also followed up at three and six months. Generalized estimating equation was adopted to examine group-by-time interaction. Results: LL group improved 0.949 points per time point in Patient Specific Functional Scale (p < .001), which was higher than the LE (B = -0.198, p = .001) and LS groups (B = -0.263, p < .001). All three groups improved on average 0.746 points per time point in Numeric Pain Rating Scale for running induced pain (p < .001). Knee extension strength increased 0.260 Nm/kg per time point (p < .001) in the LL group, which was higher than the LE (B = -0.220 Nm/kg, p < .001) and LS groups (B = -0.206, p < .001). LL group also showed greater increase in running step length (2.464 cm per time point, p = .001) than LS group (B = -2.213, p = .013). All three groups improved similarly in back muscles function. Conclusion: LL exercise therapy could be a new option for cLPB management given its superior effects in improving running capability, knee extension strength, and running gait.
    WOS© Citations 14Scopus© Citations 17  714  403
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Body image, physical activity and sport involvement: A study on gender differences
    (Sciendo, 2020)
    Leng, Ho Keat
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    Phua, Philip Yi Xian
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    The aim of this study is to examine whether sport involvement i.e. identification with the domain of sports affect satisfaction with body image in men and women. 158 respondents from a tertiary educational institution provided data on their satisfaction with their body image, level of sport involvement, and level of physical activity. Independent t-tests were conducted to compare differences between and within genders. Female respondents (n=40) who were high in sport involvement reported a significantly lower level of dissatisfaction with their body image (M=.55, SD=.78) when compared to female respondents (n=44) who were low in sport involvement (M=.84, SD=.83; t=1.65, p<.05). There was no significant difference amongst male respondents. There was also no significant difference in satisfaction with body image across groups with varying levels of physical activity. This suggests that being involved in sport can affect body image satisfaction amongst females.
    WOS© Citations 4Scopus© Citations 4  378  212