Betsy Ng Ling Ling
- PublicationOpen AccessDeveloping my groupwork buddy for geography (MGBGeo)
- PublicationOpen AccessBuilding a culture of collaboration and listening pedagogy in classrooms through lesson study for learning community (LSLC): An exploratory study in a primary school in Singapore
- PublicationRestrictedEffects of differential fertiliser treatments on the growth of Bermuda Tifdwarf through soil monitoring(2007)This research study investigated the effects of three differential fertilser treatments on the growth of bermudagrass Tifdwarf (Cynodon dactylon and Cynodon transvaalensis) over a period of ten weeks. Parameters of the study include field capacity, root count, shoot density, hot-water extractable carbon (HWC), microbial DNA concentrations and DNA fragments analysis. They were examined for their usefulness as indicators for soil quality and turf growth. Indicators responding to environmental changes provide invaluable information on the sustainability of a turf. Weekly applications of the organic fertiliser, inorganic fertiliser and Azospirillum biofertiliser (Vital NTM, Philippines) were given to three individual troughs planted with Tifdwarf. The nitrogen contents in all fertiliser treatments were adjusted to the same level. The effects of the application of organic and inorganic fertilisers were compared and organic treatment notably enhanced the turf density and growth, but not the turf colour. The effects of the application of Azospirillum biofertiliser were compared to the inorganic fertiliser treatment and it was proven that Azospirillum biofertiliser has superior effects on the turf colour, density and growth. These beneficial effects seen were probably due to the nitrogen fixation property of Azospirillum as well as its auxin effect on root growth, thereby increasing the root surface area and uptake of nutrients. HWC is a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilisation and detecting changes in soil organic matter. Organic fertiliser and Azospirillum biofertiliser treatments showed trends of increasing HWC levels. Increased HWC levels would indicate high microbial turnover and high accumulation rate of organic matter. Fluctuations in the microbial DNA concentrations of all treatments revealed the dynamic microbial changes in the soil-plant ecosystem. Microbial shift in soil was greatly influenced by the environmental changes and nutrient resources. The bioavailability of HWC, nutrients, water and other environmental factors impose stress to the ecosystem which can affect the size of microbial pool and diversity, as well as the plant growth. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the extracted microbial DNA was amplified as ITS sequence length varies among microbial species. The microbial DNA profiling through fragment analysis of the microbial ITS sequence among these three treatments showed a dynamic microbial community. The DNA profiling method through the use of fragment analysis reveals the diversity pattern in soil microbial communities. This method has the potential to be used for monitoring soil microbial diversity, which can be correlated to plant growth.
- PublicationOpen AccessConceptualizing lifelong learning for K-12 education(2023)In this era of rapid evolution, education in the twenty-first century must strive to develop students to be lifelong learners. Students should possess goals and life-ready competencies for continuous learning during formal, non-formal, and informal education. Within a globalizing world, lifelong learning skills enable students to manage difficulties and challenges. Lifelong learning for K-12 education may shape our students’ values and behavior, as well as build resilience in the face of challenges ahead. To date, educational research related to lifelong learning across varied contexts of K-12 education is still in its infancy. The present paper contributes to the conceptualization of lifelong learning for K-12 education and provides a deeper understanding of future directions for research in this area. It explains various perspectives of lifelong learning and its operationalized definition for the K-12 educational contexts. Subsequently, it proposes a whole school approach to cultivate continuous learning in students and an assessment for lifelong learning. Finally, implications and recommendations for the K-12 education of lifelong learning are also included.
- PublicationUnknownConnecting graduate employability and workplace: A sociocultural perspective(Springer, 2022)The social and cultural dimensions of professional learning in workplace contexts may nurture individual’s involvement and belongingness within the community. This chapter proposes a sociocultural perspective to understand the social and cultural aspects of a workplace. Such sociocultural approach is invaluable as most of the time, our graduates do have the qualifications and knowledge, but they lack the ability to integrate and interact with the social process. A sociocultural perspective allows us to understand the constraints and dynamics of a working context, whereby individuals may find struggle at work and feel stressed when they face challenges or setbacks. The present chapter provides insights of a sociocultural perspective on the graduate employability and workplace of individuals. This proposed approach aims to develop individual ability to survive and achieve in the future workplace, as well as it highlights the importance of understanding the social and reflexive process amongst individuals. This chapter makes a theoretical contribution, in that it elaborates sociocultural aspects of a workplace and provides insights into graduate employability by integrating individual, interactional and sociocultural practices. It thereby offers the possible and future directions of sociocultural research in the context of workplace community and lifelong employability.
- PublicationRestrictedAutonomy support in education : fostering intrinsic motivation and learning in schools(2014)The 21st century is characterised by an explosion of knowledge as well as time of ambiguity and uncertainty. So, there is an increasing need for workers to be able to learn independently and take charge of their own learning to do well in this knowledge-based economy. Rather than merely focus on student academic achievement; schools must focus on nurturing students so that they are motivated and self-regulated towards learning. This can be achieved to a large extent by promoting an autonomy-supportive learning climate.
In this thesis, the influence of teacher autonomy support on students’ motivation and learning was examined in the academic contexts of Singapore. The subjects were secondary 2 and 3 students (a mean age of 14.7) taking mathematics and science in the local secondary schools. The research was conducted in four studies, primarily with the use of self-reported measures. The measures included the motivated strategies for learning (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990), learning climate (Williams & Deci, 1996), self-regulation (Ryan & Connell, 1989) and needs satisfaction (Deci & Ryan, 2000) questionnaires, as well as enjoyment and effort (McAuley, Duncan, & Tammen, 1989) subscales. Additionally, interview transcripts and academic achievement comprising of students’ grades were included.
The first study was to establish the construct validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) in the local academic domains (i.e. mathematics and science). Preliminary to the subsequent three studies, the results revealed the parsimony confirmatory factor structure of the revised MSLQ via a congeneric strategy.
The second study was a cross-sectional research, examining the associations of teacher autonomy support, needs satisfaction, relative autonomy and academic achievement with the MSLQ constructs. The findings showed that teacher autonomy support influenced students’ intrinsic value, self-efficacy, test anxiety and learning strategies. Moreover, students seemed to perceive competence as the prevalent need in their learning of mathematics and science. Subsequently, the cluster-analytic results revealed four distinct MSLQ learner profiles in association with psychological needs and motivational regulation, suggesting that motivational-cognitive constructs were significantly associated with psychological variables important for self-determined behaviour and successful learning.
The third study investigated the effects of autonomy-supportive classroom intervention on students’ motivation and learning towards mathematics and science. The findings showed that the intervention had significant effects on students’ perceived autonomy support, self-efficacy, introjected regulation and academic achievement. The importance of teacher autonomy support was further evaluated using person-centred analyses and cluster movement over time. The cluster movement demonstrated the intraindividual changes in motivational beliefs and cognitive strategies across two time points, providing a snapshot of the dynamics in student learning. The cluster-analytic results revealed that students with the most adaptive MSLQ profile displayed the most self-determined behaviours and performed academically well.
Finally, the fourth study was a follow-up to the intervention whereby semi-structured interviews were conducted on students and teachers. Emerging themes including relatedness and expectations from students and teachers corroborated the main findings in Study 3. The qualitative data also provided relevant and practical insights into the classroom intervention, suggesting that teachers should be aware of their instructional behaviours in class as such acts might have ramification on students’ perception, motivation and learning. To sum, the present study demonstrated the importance of teacher autonomy support in fostering students’ intrinsic motivation and nurturing their learning in academic contexts.
- PublicationOpen AccessMeasuring educational leadership in Singapore: Re-examining the psychometric properties of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
Introduction: The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X) has been used frequently to assess leadership in different settings. Despite its popularity, there are many critiques of the MLQ-5X such as its questionable multidimensional structure, lack of connection to the theory and the different factor structures of the measurement tool. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the psychometric properties of the MLQ-5X in the Singapore educational context using two datasets.
Methods: A total of 872 teachers (40.1% male and 59.9% female) from 20 secondary schools in Singapore completed two sets of MLQ-5X, one set for their immediate reporting officer and one set for their school leaders.
Results: Congeneric Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Rho’s coefficients, and AVE were used to analyze MLQ-5X’s convergent validity and internal consistency. After five items were deleted, the MLQ-5X showed acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity. Eight measurement models were tested with the original 36 items and the reduced items MLQ-5X. Latent factor correlation matrix with confidence intervals was used to assess the discriminant validity of the MLQ-5X. The results provided support for a nine first-order factors and three second-order factors model (transformation [IIA, IIB, IM, IS, IC, CR], transactional (MBEA), and non-leadership (MBEP and LF).
Discussion: The discriminant validity of the hierarchical measurement model of MLQ-5X is supported using dataset 2.
- PublicationMetadata onlyPredictive relationships among psychological needs satisfaction, creative growth mindset and life outcomes: A sample of individuals above age 40This study examined the predictive relationships among psychological needs satisfaction (in terms of autonomy, competence and relatedness), creative growth mindset, life adaptability, and satisfaction with life. A sample of 130 individuals of above age 40 in Singapore voluntarily participated in this study by completing a structured questionnaire. Path analysis was conducted to examine the predictive relationships among the variables. Results revealed that the need for competence directly predicted life adaptability but not satisfaction with life. Need for relatedness directly predicted satisfaction with life but not life adaptability. Need for autonomy directly predicted satisfaction with life but also indirectly predicted life adaptability via creative growth mindset. This study highlighted the differential impacts of the three psychological needs on different life outcomes and also the mediating role of creative growth mindset in enhancing life adaptability.
Scopus© Citations 1 16
- PublicationMetadata onlyCan being autonomy-supportive in teaching improve students’ self-regulation and performance?
11WOS© Citations 33
- PublicationMetadata onlyBenefits of travel motivation in senior adults: A self-determination theory approach(2020)
;Ho, GloriaThis chapter posits a conceptual framework of push and pull factors relating to travel motivation in senior adults using the self-determination theory (SDT). In response to the increasing need for active and healthy aging, it is important to empower our senior adults with the positive mindset that they can still travel abroad despite of mobility challenges. Most senior adults are reluctant to travel abroad or outside of their hometown, primarily due to their perceived mobility which is related to autonomy, perceived travel competence and relatedness. With a suitable traveling companion, their need for relatedness could be satisfied. However, senior adults may face travel challenges such that their needs for autonomy and competence may be compromised (or may not be easily fulfilled). Empirical research has shown a strong bilateral relationship between autonomy and competence. If a senior adult feels that there is a perceived mobility challenge to travel out of the country, his or her perceived travel autonomy and competence may be undermined. This may lead to a lack of intrinsic motivation and a diminished impact of push factors (e.g., motivation). This preliminary exploration of autonomous motivation and satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) in relation to traveling for senior adults is a timely move as it provides insights into motivational strategies to promote healthy aging. In addition, benefits of travel motivation among senior adults will be explored and discussed. Scopus© Citations 2 18