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Fine-tuning in a design experiment

2013, Ho, Foo Him, Toh, Pee Choon, Toh, Tin Lam

Quek, Tay, Toh, Leong, and Dindyal (2011) proposed that a design-theory-practice troika should always be considered for a designed package to be acceptable to the research users who, in this case, are teachers and schools. This paper describes the fine-tuning to the MProSE problem-solving design made by the teachers in the school after first round of teaching. This process involved teacher input from their experience, and detailed time-consuming discussions and learning between the researcher-designers and the teacher-implementers.

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A framework to examine the mathematics in lessons of competent mathematics teachers in Singapore

2017-07, Kaur, Berinderjeet, Wong, Lai Fong, Toh, Tin Lam

This paper outlines an analytical framework that was developed, to examine the mathematics in mathematics lessons of competent teachers in Singapore secondary schools. The framework is guided by Schoenfeld's Teaching for Robust Understanding (TR U) framework and also the field notes of the project - A study of the enacted school mathematics curriculum which is presently underway in Singapore. The framework was trialled and the indicators were suitable but may not be comprehensive. Therefore more trials and also more codes on how the teacher aided students in developing mathematical knowledge and student engagement with mathematical ideas are needed. In addition student perspectives of the lesson are also necessary to make any valid claims related to the quality of the lessons.

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Scaling UP the education research: MAGICAL (SUPER-MAGICAL): Use of comics in teaching mathematics

2024, Toh Tin Lam

This project is a continuation from the earlier research project MAGICAL on using comics for mathematics instruction for the low attaining students.

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Use of practical worksheet in teacher education at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels

2012, Toh, Pee Choon, Toh, Tin Lam, Ho, Foo Him, Quek, Khiok Seng

We have applied the ‘practical paradigm’ in teaching problem solving to secondary school students. The key feature of the practical paradigm is the use of a practical worksheet to guide the students’ processes in problem solving. In this paper, we report the diffusion of the practical paradigm to university level courses for prospective and practising teachers. The higher level of mathematics content would demand higher order thinking skills. Learners without a model of problem solving would often revert to solving by referring to many examples of the same ‘type’ of problem. Polya-type problem solving skills framed by the practical worksheet was used as an attempt to elicit more effective problem solving behaviour from them. Preliminary findings show that they were able to use the practical worksheet to model their solution of problems in the courses.

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Teaching mathematical problem-solving in the mathematics classroom

2018, Toh, Tin Lam

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Reading mathematics: A holistic curriculum approach

2017-07, Ho, Weng Kin, Teo, Kok Ming, Zhao, Dongsheng, Yap, Romina Ann Soon, Tay, Eng Guan, Toh, Pee Choon, Toh, Tin Lam, Cheang, Wai Kwong, Zhu, Ying, Dong, F. M., Shutler, Paul, Quek, Khiok Seng

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On in-service mathematics teachers’ content knowledge on kinematics

2005, Toh, Tin Lam

This paper reports a preliminary study on in-service Additional mathematics teachers' knowledge of kinematics concepts. A survey consisting of TRUE/FALSE questions was issued to the participating teachers. The questions were collations of the common misconceptions identified by some local Physics teachers among the local Physics students. The participants were asked to supply the answers to the questionnaire with their answers substantiated with reasons. In this paper, we discuss the results of the survey done on a group of twenty six in-service Additional mathematics teachers and classify the teachers' misconceptions of kinematics concepts. The finding of this initial survey could be useful to spur further research on Mathematics teachers' subject content knowledge on kinematics. Pragmatically it would also be useful for any agency which is planning for any content upgrading workshops for in-service teachers.

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Mathematical problem solving for everyone: Infusion and diffusion (MInD)

2020, Toh, Tin Lam, Tay, Eng Guan, Leong, Yew Hoong, Quek, Khiok Seng, Toh, Pee Choon, Dindyal, Jaguthsing, Ho, Foo Him

This research project is an attempt to realise the ideals of mathematical problem solving, which is at the heart of the Singapore mathematics curriculum in the daily practices of mainstream mathematics classrooms. This work builds on the foundation of M-ProSE (OER 32/08 TTL) to diffuse the findings to the mainstream school curriculum. Our work involves three steps: (1) initialisation of problem solving as an essential part of the mathematics curriculum in a school at the foundational year; (2) infusion of problem solving as an embedded regular curricular and pedagogical practice across all year levels in the school, and (3) diffusion of this innovation from this school to the full range of schools in Singapore. In each of the above steps, we take a complex systems approach and include curriculum, instructional practices, assessment and teacher professional development in our overall design research process. Our current project builds upon the initial foundation of MProSE to scale out (infuse) and scale up (diffuse) the innovation to mainstream schools in Singapore, hence the project is named MInD. With the experience and data collected from MProSE research school, the design needs to be re-adjusted in order for problem solving to be diffused throughout the mainstream schools. The importance and relevance of this research project to schools is readily observed by the schools' responses: To the researchers' pleasant surprise, four mainstream schools readily expressed their commitment to participate in this research as the school leaders see the relevance of this project to their school curriculum. Further, the Principal of MProSE research school expressed his interest to get his school involved for the infusion phase(step (2)) of the research. The research team of MInD consists of the original researchers from MProSE and two more new team members. The entire team consists of expertise from different fields: mathematicians, mathematics educator, educational psychologist, curriculum specialist, senior teacher, a school principal (who is also a mathematician), an expert of change management and leadership studies, a senior MOE curriculum specialist.

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Assessment in a problem solving curriculum

2009, Toh, Tin Lam, Quek, Khiok Seng, Leong, Yew Hoong, Dindyal, Jaguthsing, Tay, Eng Guan

In this paper we elaborate on the ways for assessing problem solving that goes beyond the usual focus on the products of the problem solving process. We designed a ‘practical’ worksheet to guide the students through the problem solving process. The worksheet focuses the solver’s attention on the key stages in problem solving. To assess the students’ problem solving throughout the process, we developed a scoring rubric based on Polya’s model (1954) and Schoenfeld’s framework (1985). Student response to the practical worksheet is discussed.

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Enhancing the pedagogy of mathematics teachers to facilitate the development of 21st century competencies in their classrooms (EPMT — 21st CC)

2017, Kaur, Berinderjeet, Toh, Tin Lam