Factors influencing teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in delivering a tier 2 CBT-based programme in secondary schools and upper primary levels

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Given that there is an increase in the number of children with social-emotional and behavioural difficulties and schools are best positioned to support them, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)-based programmes within a Tiered System of Support framework may be implemented. A Tier 2 programme may be considered as it is an efficient use of resources to target a larger group of students than Tier 3 while being more targeted than Tier 1. Implementation drivers of staff selection and training would need to be considered for effective implementation. As such, this study explored factors that were related to teacher self-efficacy beliefs for delivering a Tier 2 CBT-based programme. Vignettes which required participants to consider how confident they would feel when required to deliver and facilitate sessions were used. Survey data on 103 teachers’ (mean age = 38.0 years, SD = 9.63) self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in general (using the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale [TSES]), teachers’ sources of self-efficacy beliefs (Mastery Experience, Vicarious Experience, Social Persuasion, Physiological/Affective State), as well as demographic variables were collected.<br><br>Based on the quantitative results, one of the four theorised sources of self-efficacy, Mastery Experience, and self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in general were significant predictors of self-efficacy beliefs for delivering a Tier 2 CBT-based programme. While quantitative results did not suggest that Vicarious Experience was a significant predictor, it was frequently highlighted when participants were asked for qualitative comments that opportunities to observe peers, professionals and other teachers with more experience, as well as role-play, would help them feel more confident to deliver such sessions.<br><br>Additionally, this study did not find any significant correlation between self-efficacy beliefs for delivering a Tier 2 CBT-based programme and demographic variables, including years of experience and prior training in social-emotional support. The lack of a quantitative relationship between prior training and self-efficacy beliefs for delivering a CBT-based programme might be due to the prior training not being specific to providing a CBT-based programme. On the other hand, training was often cited in response to the qualitative items as a type of support that participants felt would help them feel more confident to deliver such a programme. Hence, training which is specific to the domain in which self-efficacy beliefs needs to be raised should be provided.<br><br>These results can be used to inform the selection of educators for such a programme and in designing the training for these teachers. Future studies may then explore the outcomes of such trainings and CBT-based programmes both in terms of teacher self-efficacy beliefs as well as student outcomes.