- PublicationRestrictedExploring teachers' metacognition and its support of the development of students' metacognition(202X)Teachers play an important role in promoting metacognition in the classroom. This study explores teachers' metacognition in the context of its support for the development of students' metacognition, and aims to understand how teachers draw on their metacognitive practices to impact their instructional practices and support students' metacognition in the classroom. The qualitative study focuses on two Secondary Two Normal Academic mathematics teachers, examining their orientations, resources, and goals through an online survey, an interview using stimulus text, a classroom lesson observation, and a video-stimulated recall interview. The findings emphasise the importance of teachers developing their pedagogical understanding of metacognition and mathematical knowledge for teaching. Additionally, the findings highlight the significance of high-quality professional development experiences and instructional resources in facilitating students' metacognition. This case study also provides valuable insights for the design of effective teacher professional development programmes for metacognition.
- PublicationRestrictedThe Korean language in the linguistic landscape on Jinxue Street, Yanji, China(2023)For several decades now, linguistic landscape research has serv e d as a sociolinguistic method to examine the vitality of minority language s and the impact of language policy on them. Since no previous case studies h ave been focused on the linguistic landscape of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture , which is a bilingual area in China featuring Chinese and Korean languages, the present case study focuses on one of the featured streets in Yanji, the capital of the Yanbian prefecture with the purposes of examin ing the impact of language policy on Korean language, as well as the status of Korean language and its functions in the linguistic landscape . As an empirical study, the present resea rch was informed by Ba ckhaus (2007 ), Scollon and Scollon (2003), Sebba (2013) 2013), Kallen (2009) and other socio linguists as guidelines to the research. And after collect ing 318 photos from the research site, Jinxue Street in Yanji , a coding scheme, including both q uantitative and qualitative analysis, was used to explore the linguistic landscape in this street. The results of the case study indicate that the local language policy is only partially effective and is not fully enforced o n Jinxue Street. T he vitality of the Korean lang uage can be clearly seen in the study 's findings , but the dominan t Chinese is th reatening the Korean language and the local language policy is often ignored . As for the functions of the language, the Korean language still can exhibit some basic information functions in the LL of Jinxue Street , but its symbolic function seems to play a more significant role.
- PublicationOpen AccessRereading teach less, learn more : curriculum policymaking as textual interweaving(2023)Singapore’s Teach Less, Learn More (TLLM) initiative was launched in 2005 as part of ongoing efforts to better educate students for life by reducing over-emphasis on teaching for academic achievement in examinations. This study applies Eisner’s (1976) educational connoisseurship and criticism to reread how TLLM has been defined, interpreted and translated in Singapore across the contexts of policy rhetoric, policy programming, and school response. The analysis pursues the question of what is (or could be) educational about curriculum policies like TLLM from the perspective of policymaking as symbolic action and textual interweaving. The focal qualities/forms in what is distinctly educational about education are mapped based on a review of scholarship on the language of/for education and curriculum as practical, semiotically-informed endeavour (Biesta, 2020; Schwab, 1969; Whitson, 2007). This mapping of educational qualities/forms is brought into conversation with local scholarship on the pervasively instrumental nature of Singapore’s education policymaking. Overall, the close textual analysis resulted in two ways of rereading how TLLM has been textualised over time. This is summed up in the hybrid conclusion: Singapore’s (con)version of TLLM. First, Singapore’s version of TLLM actually means Teach (it) Better so that students may Learn (it) Better i.e. TLLM = TBLB. This is based on objectifying curriculum subject matter as quantifiable “learning content” or “load” to be conveyed effectively via teaching as delivery and pedagogy as strategy, so that students may learn “it” better in the sense of acquiring or mastering “it” in demonstrable ways. Second, I show how this textual conversion (TLLM = TBLB) is achieved via policy rhetoric’s re-definition of TLLM to become a vehicle for the previously announced Innovation & Enterprise initiative (I&E). Finally, I complete the task of educational criticism by evaluating Singapore’s (con)version of TLLM against the mapping of focal qualities/forms in what is distinctly educational about education. I argue that there are promising prospects for a noninstrumental and educational approach to policymaking in Singapore even though it is clear that we are thoroughly instrumental in thinking/doing curriculum via objectifying knowledge and human being/s. Beyond the specific analyses, the conceptual contribution advanced by this thesis is the need to supplement the ‘fidelity in policy translation’ lens to analyse both loss and gain in mis- or non-translation of policy potential. I argue for a non-perjorative approach to educational evaluation of problematic policy texts towards a pedagogy (upbringing) of under-worked policy potential. I propose that curriculum policymaking as textual interweaving potentiates a form of educational research activism for policy analysts who are also engaged in education as praxis.
- PublicationRestrictedEnhancing speaker credibility in business communication using critical visual literacy(2023)The impetus for this study came from the absence of theory for the feedback component of the communication model used in a Business Communication module at a public university in Singapore. To address this gap, the theory of critical literacy and an adapted critical visual literacy framework synthesized from two theories, informed the design of two self-assessment tools which were proposed as self-feedback to enhance students’ speaker credibility. Forty-eight English as a Second Language (ESL) undergraduate business students were assigned to three groups: Group 1 served as a control group, Group 2 received Critical Visual Literacy Checklist (CVLC) Part 1 containing 5 non-verbal cues, while Group 3 received CVLC Part 1 and Part 2, containing 5 reflective questions. Six participants from each group were later interviewed in focus groups. After treatments, all three groups’ presentations were peer and instructor-assessed using a Speaker Credibility Survey containing 7 items on a 1-7 semantic differential scale. Although results show no significant effect on the use of the self-assessment tools on participants’ enhanced speaker credibility, qualitative findings indicate the usefulness of CVLC Part 1. Results also show that there were gender differences in terms of how the participants positioned themselves for “power” and through “presentation skills”. Lastly, results from focus group interviews indicate that participants showed awareness of redesign and were aware of their own speaker credibility, issues of confidence and anxiety, and gender differences in public speaking.
- PublicationOpen AccessThe effects of low energy availability (LEA) on metabolism, bone, reproductive markers, and mood states in endurance runners(2023)Low energy availability (LEA) occurs when there is insufficient dietary energy intake to account for energy needed for exercise and to sustain daily physiological functions. LEA tends to manifest more in physically active populations (i.e., athletes), and when unaddressed can lead to undesirable health and performance outcomes. Literature suggests that individual involved in endurance running are prone to LEA due to the high training demands that are not matched by concomitant high energy intake. However, the reported prevalence of LEA in endurance runners is widespread, ranging from 6%-92%, partly because of the variety of methods that can identify LEA. Furthermore, these methods are mostly validated in females, even though existing studies have used them in both sexes. The common methods are the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), measured Energy Availability (EA) of ≤ 30 kcal/kg Fat Free Mass (FFM)/ day, and a Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) ratio ≤ 0.90. Therefore, the main aims of the thesis were: (i) to examine the prevalence of LEA risk and its association(s) with related risk factors in endurance runners in Singapore (Study 1); (ii) compare the methods of LEA risk identification (LEAF-Q, measured EA, RMRratio) and determine which have stronger association(s) with LEA risk factors and markers (Study 2); and (iii) investigate the short-term effects of LEA on associated risk markers (metabolism, bone, reproductive, and psychological) in male endurance runners (Study 3). Findings from this thesis can potentially inform practitioners and/or researchers of how to better detect LEA early. They could also improve guidance for athletes on how to better attain optimal EA via dietary energy intake to account for their exercise energy expenditure and daily physiological functions.
Study 1 included 126 endurance runners (47 females, 79 males) who completed an online questionnaire that included self-reported items related to participants’ characteristics: height and weight, exercise/ training frequency and intensity, and questionnaires on disordered eating, exercise addiction, LEA, and the Male Athlete Triad. Study 2 was conducted as a cross-sectional study design which involved 20 male and 20 female endurance runners from Study 1. The participants completed several measurements in the laboratory – RMR, blood markers (metabolism, bone turnover, and reproductive), and a maximal oxygen uptake test (V̇ O2max) test. The participants were classified as at-risk of LEA and not-at-risk of LEA based on the LEAF-Q, self-reported three-day food diary and exercise log (measured EA), and RMRratio. Study 3 was an experimental study that used a randomised, repeated measures study design with three conditions of controlled EA (15, 30, 45 kcal/kgFFM/day) on 12 male endurance runners. Each EA condition lasted for a period of four days, through a controlled DEI (prescribed meal plans) and EEE (standardised exercise protocol).
The findings from this thesis showed that a substantial proportion (18-50%) of endurance runners at LEA risk, with more males at risk than females. The prominent risk factors associated with LEA risk were disordered eating (measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire), and exercise addiction (Exercise Addiction Inventory), suggesting that LEA can possibly be managed by targeting these factors. Secondly, the existing methods to identify LEA risk do not clearly differentiate between at risk and not at risk, as there were few significant differences in biomarkers between the two groups. Therefore, future studies need to refine and (re)validate the cut-offs in both sexes to improve the sensitivity of LEA identification. Lastly, short term LEA at 15kcal/kgFFM/day decreased testosterone and increased fatigue in male runners. These signs have the potential to be used as early markers of LEA in male runners. Endurance runners and individuals who play a role in athletes’ health and performance, including coaches, clinicians, etc, can apply this thesis’ findings to better understand how LEA can be identified, prevented, and managed, by measuring markers such as testosterone and mood states, and monitoring risk factors such as disordered eating on a regular (annual) basis.
- PublicationRestrictedMedia representations of the Chinese government in the Wuhan lockdown related events : a critical discourse analysis of China Daily, New York Times, The Guardian and Reuters(2023)This study compares the representations of the Chinese government in the Wuhan lockdown related events across four English-language news outlets, China Daily, New York Times, The Guardian, and Reuters, through the lens of critical discourse analysis. It aims to reveal how the Chinese government is differently represented with various linguistic resources. Adopting the transitivity analysis of Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar as the research framework, this study also employs other analytical tools. It first analyses the news headlines and quotation patterns of 13 selected news articles and continues to examine nuanced representations of the Chinese government with transitivity analysis in four media outlets. It reveals that China Daily and the three British/American news outlets have construed the Chinese government in a continuum with different degrees of positivity and negativity. China Daily portrays the government most positively, characterizing it as highly responsible and informative, and the Wuhan lockdown related activities are depicted as appropriate and legitimate under the guidelines of the World Health Organization. New York Times, in contrast, depicts the government most negatively, portraying it as authoritarian, exceptionally brutal and lacking in transparency due to excessive concern of face. The Guardian offers a factual and moderately negative image, depicting the Chinese government as draconian, irrational, lacking in transparency and a violator of human rights. Reuters presents it more factually and least negatively where the Chinese government is criticised on one hand for being draconian and lacking in transparency; Reuters also acknowledges the Chinese government for being committed and responding promptly. This study indicated that differentiated representations were revealed in the four news outlets and despite a predominant negative portrayal, positive representations can also be identified in the examined British/American news outlets.
- PublicationRestrictedMixed model lower body power training approach on female athletes(2023)Recent studies have shown that training at optimal power load (OPL) has positive short and long term effects on athletic performance. The OPL is capable of distinguishing athletes based on various factors such as sports performance levels, disciplines, age, and gender. (Loturco et al., 2022). Mixed model training (MMT) approaches, where training loads vary between sets or sessions, is shown to improve strength and performance in jumping (Hernandez-Davo et al., 2022). By variating training load, coaches are able to better manage fatigue, training adaptation optimization and potentially improve sporting performance (DeWeese et al., 2015). At present, it is unclear which method, either OPL or MMT, would be more beneficial in enhancing physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine if there were any variations in the impact of MMT and OPL training on the physical abilities of female athletes engaged in team sports, specifically focusing on lower limb strength, jumping, sprinting, and change of direction skills. The research involved the involvement of seventeen female representative athletes (average age 22 ± 2.9 years, body mass 60.52 ± 9.62 kg, height 162.69 ± 5.2 cm) who were selected from the Singapore national women softball team. Pre- and post-tests included the isometric mid-thigh pull test, , 5-0-5 change of direction test, countermovement jump test, 20m sprint test and the OPL test. The participants in the study were randomly assigned to either the MMT group or the OPL group. Both groups underwent a six-week training program consisting of two training sessions per week. Participants in the MMT group performed a 20% overload of their individual OPL on day 1 with a 20% underload on day 2. Participants in the OPL group trained at the OPL load on both training days. The findings indicated that there were no notable disparities between the MMT and OPL groups concerning the measurements taken prior to and after the training program. Specifically, the study found no noteworthy differences between the MMT and OPL groups when it came to various measurements such as concentric peak force (MMT 1284 ± 181.80 N to 1270 ± 163.30 N p = 0.228, OPL 1406 ± 208.5 N to 1461 ± 154.6 N p = 0.121), jump height (MMT 31.51 ± 6.12 cm to 31.54 ± 4.263 cm p = 0.98, OPL 28.98 ± 5.594 cm to 28.38 ± 4.965 cm p = 0.417), peak vertical force (MMT 1841 ± 204.10 N to 1818 ± 288.30 N p = 0.617, OPL 1934 ± 256.7 N to 2056 ± 267.5 N p = 0.108), force at 100ms (MMT 884 ± 138.60 N to 924.5 ± 132.60 N p = 0.423, OPL 995.3 ± 209.8 N to 909.9 ± 124.9 N p = 0.184), and rate of force development (MMT 2897 ± 1504 N/s to 3539 ± 1629 N/s p = 0.188, OPL 3093 ± 2004 N/s to 2853 ± 1281 N/s p = 0.572) in the isometric mid-thigh pull test. Additionally, no significant differences were found in the time taken for 5-0-5 change of direction time (MMT 2.547 ± 0.09 s to 2.537 ± 0.13 s p = 0.797, OPL 2.622 ± 0.231 s to 2.594 ± 0.266 s p = 0.525), peak power (MMT 3201 ± 493 W to 3090 ± 556.60 W p = 0.35, OPL 3233 ± 457.8 W to 3314 ± 484.2 W p = 0.589), and 20m sprint time (MMT 3.415 ± 0.25 s to 3.345 ± 0.15 s p = 0.311, OPL 3.483 ± 0.294 s to 3.507 ± 0.285 s p = 0.635) for both groups. Based on this study, significant distinctions were not observed in the pre- and post-test assessments of concentric peak force and jump height during the countermovement jump test. Similarly, no notable differences were found in peak vertical force, force at 100ms, and rate of force development during the isometric mid-thigh pull test, as well as the time taken for the 5-0-5 change of direction test, peak power, and 20m sprint time for both the MMT and OPL groups. There is a notable rise in the OPL load for participants in the OPL condition (31.06 ± 7.08 kg to 39.01 ± 5.63 kg p = 0.012) only. To conclude, this study demonstrated that introducing a variation in load during power training does not result in an enhancement of power output as measured by power-based testing outcomes. With the use of real time data, coaches are encouraged to plan load variations during power training to add friendly competition within the team to enhance training intent and experience.
- PublicationRestrictedDeveloping students' understanding of integer addition and substraction(2023)This study aimed to investigate how the NNL (Neutralization on an Empty Number Line) model can foster students’ learning processes in developing their understanding of integer addition and subtraction concepts. We defined students’ understanding of integer addition and subtraction concepts as having the ability to apply procedures and to justify solutions in solving integer addition and subtraction problems. This study addressed three main research questions: (1) how students develop their understanding of positive and negative integer concepts and the additive inverse property, (2) how the NNL model support students’ abstraction processes in understanding integer addition and subtraction concepts, and (3) to what extent does the NNL model help students overcome their difficulties in solving integer addition and subtraction problems. A design-based research (DBR) methodology which consists of three phases – a design and preparation, a teaching experiment, and a retrospective analysis - was chosen to address these research questions.
Two consecutive macro-cycles (MC I and MC II), each consisting of the three phases, were carried out with a six-week interval between the two teaching experiments of MC I and MC II. Prior to MC I, a preliminary study consisting of teachers’ interviews and a small-scale teaching experiment was also conducted. Findings from the preliminary study helped improve our instructional design in the form of a conjectured local instruction theory (LIT) which consists of conjectures about a possible learning process and possible means of supporting that learning process. The conjectured LIT was then elaborated in the form of a hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) where instructions and conjectures of students’ responses were made more explicit. There was a sequence of five lessons in the HLT which was structured based on our identification of integer addition and subtraction problem types, that is, four types of integer addition problems, and six types of integer subtraction problems.
The teaching experiments of MC I and MC II were conducted in a classroom of sixth graders (11 to 12 years old students), each in School A and B, respectively. Both schools implemented the revised edition of the 2013 national curriculum, where concepts of negative integers and the four basic arithmetic operations involving negative integers are first introduced in grade six. In each macro-cycle, a written pre- and post-test were administered to all students in the classroom before and after the intervention in the teaching experiment phase. Following the pre- and post-test, individual interviews were conducted only with the selected nine students for the purpose of further analysis regarding their reasoning and how the NNL model have benefited them in solving difficult addition and subtraction problems. The participation in this study was voluntary, and all participant identifiers were removed in this report.
Findings reported in Chapter 5 and 6 were derived from the retrospective analysis by combining the task-oriented analysis and the constant comparative method, where conjectures about students’ learning in the HLT were constantly compared with the actual (observed) learning trajectory throughout the study. Similarities and differences across macro-cycles were identified to provide confirmation or counter examples regarding the generated conjectures. This study demonstrates how the NNL model gradually developed as a ‘model for’ students’ reasoning in solving integer addition and subtraction problems. Students who have built the conceptual system of the NNL model are able to solve any types of integer addition and subtraction problems, able to communicate and justify their solutions, and able to deduce abstract relationships between addition and subtraction.
- PublicationRestrictedDeveloping science teachers’ language awareness to enhance the teaching of disciplinary literacy: A study of teachers’ lesson enactments through the lens of adaptive expertise(National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University (NIE NTU), Singapore, 2021)