Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10497/22127
Title: 
Authors: 
Subjects: 
Attention
Interference
Deep breathing
EEG
Intervention
Children
Issue Date: 
2020
Citation: 
Khng, K. H., & Mane, R. (2020). Beyond BCI: Validating a wireless, consumer-grade EEG headset against a medical-grade system for evaluating EEG effects of a test anxiety intervention in school. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 45, Article 101106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2020.101106
Abstract: 
Educational neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field. However, the use of neuroimaging
techniques and tools such as electroencephalography (EEG) in school-based interventions and research is
limited, largely due to the high costs and physical constraints of conventional research- or medical-grade
equipment. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological data can provide useful evidence to validate the
efficacy of interventions. The present study explores the utility of lightweight, affordable, and easy-toset-
up EEG systems for use in school-based research with children. Specifically, we examine the effects
of a deep-breathing-for-test-anxiety intervention on brain electrical activity during a flanker distractor
interference task in eleven-year olds, comparing the pattern of results observed using a consumer-grade
EEG system (Emotiv EPOC+) against that obtained using a medical-grade EEG system (Neurostyle).
Behavioral, EEG, and respiratory data was obtained from Primary 5 students (N = 45; Mage = 10.88, SD =
.33), split into Emotiv and Neurostyle groups. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine the effects
of deep breathing on neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of inhibitory control of attention in
children, and to understand the affordances and limitations of the Emotiv system for school-based research
with children. Results from power spectral analyses suggest that deep breathing may enhance attentional
control on a neural level by modulating brain electrical activity on several frequencies. Despite limitations,
the low-res, consumer-grade EEG system appears to be capable of detecting some degree of power spectral
differences associated with intervention effects.
Description: 
This is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in Advanced Engineering Informatics. The published version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2020.101106
URI: 
ISSN: 
1474-0346
DOI: 
File Permission: 
Open
File Availability: 
With file
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