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Chong, Wan Har
Silver, Rita
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This is a quasi-experimental study that aims to investigate the role of Visible Thinking Routines (VTR) on students’ Self-efficacy, Metacognition, Speaking Anxiety and Academic Achievement in Speaking in a Singapore Primary school. For these four variables of interest, the study also examined four potential sources of efficacy: Mastery Experience, Vicarious Experience, Verbal Persuasion and Emotional Arousal. Although extensive research has been carried out to explore pedagogies, skills and strategies related to the teaching and learning of speaking with the aim of enhancing academic test scores, little attention has been given to other psychoeducational constructs such as self-efficacy, metacognition and speaking anxiety. These psychological, cognitive and emotional domains have been neglected but may play a part in students’ speaking achievement. In this quasi-experimental study, three self-report instruments were administered to a sample of 228 Primary-4 and 228 Primary-5 students (n=456) in a Singapore primary school as a pre-test and post-test. Six classes formed the experimental group while six classes formed the control group. The experimental group was exposed to the VTR intervention while the control group was taught using usual instruction methods.

SPSS Analysis involving Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that students in the experimental group, who were administered the VTR intervention strategy attained significantly higher post scores in their oral test, self-efficacy and metacognition measures. These students also showed significant reductions in their post speaking anxiety scores. Multiple regression of the sources of self-efficacy indicated that for Self-Efficacy in Speaking, Verbal Persuasion was the most significant contributor before intervention while Emotional Arousal was the most significant contributor after intervention. For Metacognition, Verbal Persuasion was the most significant contributor before and after the intervention. For Speaking Anxiety, Mastery Experience was the most significant contributor before and after intervention. None of the sources of efficacy contributed significantly to oral test scores. Correlational analysis also showed a significant change in relationship between Speaking Anxiety and Self-Efficacy: there was no observable relationship between these variables pre intervention, but a significant and strong negative relationship emerged between these variables post intervention. The relationships between the other variables were maintained. In analysing gender differences in the intervention outcomes, findings revealed that only the post scores for Oral Test and Speaking Anxiety differed by gender, with girls attaining higher post Oral Test scores and boys attaining lower post Speaking Anxiety scores (after VTR was implemented). There was no significant gender difference in post scores of Self-Efficacy and Metacognition.

The study highlighted the utility of using the VTR. This instructional strategy operates on the principle of making thinking visible by getting students to vocalize their thoughts and ideas aloud. The specific VTR strategy of having students express ‘I see…/I Think…/I Wonder’ exposes students to a simple routine which imbues a culture of thinking in them. If they are constantly encouraged to use these routines, they may be able to tap on their metacognitive faculties, develop higher self-efficacy and become less anxious in oral performance.

In conclusion, the findings from the present study reveal that VTR is a viable strategy for the Singapore Primary English classroom instruction as it has helped to enhance students’ oral test scores, self-efficacy in speaking, metacognition and reduce speaking anxiety. With sufficient exposure and practice of the ‘I See…/I Think…/I Wonder’ routine, students’ speaking can be shaped and organized by structured thinking and other positive outcomes can be achieved. This study also creates awareness in educators to be cognizant of the psychological, cognitive and emotional aspects related to speaking and that students’ overall success in speaking can be achieved if all their needs are looked into holistically.
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LB1117 Nur
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Appears in Collections:Doctor in Education (Ed.D.)

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