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Assessment of psychopathic traits in Singaporean adolescents: Validation of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD)
Psychopathic traits
Factor analysis
Gender invariance
Issue Date: 
Li, X., Chan, W. T., Ang, R. P., & Huan, V. S. (2017). Assessment of psychopathic traits in Singaporean adolescents: Validation of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 39(2), 198–208.
There is little knowledge available concerning psychopathic traits in Asian adolescents; a
lack of a suitable measurement instrument for assessing psychopathy in Asian societies may
account for this. This study aimed to validate a widely used scale in the West — the
Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) — in Singaporean school-based and at-risk
adolescents. Using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis
(CFA), this study examined the two-factor (i.e., grandiose-manipulative/impulsive traits and
callous-unemotional traits) and three-factor (i.e., grandiose-manipulative traits, impulsivity,
and callous-unemotional traits) models of the APSD in 1,027 school-based and 113 at-risk
adolescents. School samples are adolescents from three secondary schools, while at-risk
samples are adolescents who manifest different types of delinquent behaviors and are either
placed in more structured settings or need closer supervision although they have not violated the law. Gender invariance was further tested in the school-based sample by conducting a
multigroup CFA. The convergent validity of the APSD was also investigated in the schoolbased
sample. For the school-based adolescents, the APSD revealed that the three-factor
model provided a superior fit over the two-factor model and the factorial invariance across
gender. Significant relationships between the three dimensions of the APSD and aggression
and delinquency support the convergent validity of the APSD. As for the at-risk adolescents,
both the two- and three-factor models were acceptable, but the two-factor model was
preferred as it was parsimonious and it aligned with the conceptualized characteristics of
psychopathic traits. Findings suggest that the APSD is a reliable and sound instrument for
measuring psychopathic traits in Asian school-based and at-risk adolescents.
This is the final draft, after peer-review, of a manuscript published in Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. The published version is available online at
0882-2689 (print)
1573-3505 (online)
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