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Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Motivation lies in the crux of understanding students’ cognitions, affect, and behaviors in the academic setting. In three distinct but related studies, three key motivational constructs are examined in this dissertation: self-attributed motives, achievement goals, and goal complexes. Study 1 focuses on motives which operate by energizing behaviors towards anticipatory goal objects (McClelland, 1987). The conceptualization of self-attributed motives is underdeveloped in the literature. Thus, Study 1 seeks to conceptualize and operationalize six self-attributed motives, namely hope of success, fear of failure, hope of affiliation, fear of rejection, hope of power, and fear of loss of power. A total of 255 undergraduate students from the Philippines and 220 undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study to develop and validate a new measure named the Self-Attributed Motive Scale (SAMS). Results showed that the SAMS displayed structural validity and measurement invariance across the two samples. Between-construct validity of the SAMS was established from the relationships between each self-attributed motive and its related outcomes.
Study 2 is centered around achievement goals. While motives energize behaviors, achievement goals are posited to direct competence-based thoughts, affect, and behaviors (Elliot, 2006). The 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011) represents a recent development in the literature by focusing the definition of achievement goals on standards of competence. As otherapproach goals from the 3 × 2 AGQ were used to develop goal complex items in Study 3, Study 2 seeks to validate the 3 × 2 AGQ. A total of 320 undergraduate students from the Philippines and 243 undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. Structural validity and measurement invariance of the 3 × 2 AGQ were established across the two samples. Furthermore, relationships between the achievement goals in the 3 × 2 AGQ and their antecedents and outcomes also established between construct validity of the measure.
Study 3 builds on Studies 1 and 2 by examining goal complexes. Herein, a goal complex is conceptualized as an integrated construct that unifies the aim of competence strivings, as represented in achievement goals defined as standards, with its underlying reasons (Elliot, 2006). Specifically, Study 3 operationalizes a goal complex in the form of a one-to-one pairing between one other-approach goal item from the 3 × 2 AGQ with items from the SAMS, as validated in Study 1, one at a time. Thus, Study 3 seeks to develop a measure of the resultant goal complexes – hope of success/other-approach, fear of failure/other-approach, hope of affiliation/other-approach, fear of rejection/otherapproach, hope of power/other-approach, and fear of loss of power/other-approach – and examine their relationships with outcomes. A total of 370 undergraduate students from the Philippines and 235 undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. Structural validity and measurement invariance were established for the new measure, the Goal Complex Scale (GCS), across the two samples. The goal complexes were also found to have differential relationships with the outcomes examined. Taken together, the conceptual, methodological, and applied contributions that arise from Studies 1, 2, and 3 are discussed.
|Appears in Collections:||Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)|
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