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Quantum correlations in quantum information
Quantum entanglement
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Kishor Bharti, Ray, M., Xu, Z.-P., Hayashi, M., Kwek, L.-C., & Cabello, A. (2022). Graph-theoretic approach for self-testing in Bell scenarios. PRX Quantum, 3(3), Article 030344.
PRX Quantum
Self-testing is a technology to certify states and measurements using only the statistics of the experiment. Self-testing is possible if some extremal points in the set BQ of quantum correlations for a Bell experiment are achieved, up to isometries, with specific states and measurements. However, BQ is difficult to characterize, so it is also difficult to prove whether or not a given matrix of quantum correlations allows for self-testing. Here, we show how some tools from graph theory can help to address this problem. We observe that BQ is strictly contained in an easy-to-characterize set associated with a graph, Θ(G). Therefore, whenever the optimum over BQ and the optimum over Θ(G)) coincide, self-testing can be demonstrated by simply proving self-testability with Θ(G). Interestingly, these maxima coincide for the quantum correlations that maximally violate many families of Bell-like inequalities. Therefore, we can apply this approach to prove the self-testability of many quantum correlations, including some that are not previously known to allow for self-testing. In addition, this approach connects self-testing to some open problems in discrete mathematics. We use this connection to prove a conjecture [M. Araujo et a/., Phys. Rev. A, 88, 022118 (2013)] about the closed-form expression of the Lovasz theta number for a family of graphs called the Mobius ladders. Although there are a few remaining issues (e.g., in some cases, the proof requires the assumption that measurements are of rank 1). this approach provides an alternative method to self-testing and draws interesting connections between quantum mechanics and discrete mathematics.
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