Now showing 1 - 10 of 20
  • Publication
    Restricted
    Physical education & sports science expert book series
    (Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 2020)
    To design and write a book on chapters pertaining to a variety of sports for children and adolescents to enjoy the process of being physically active.
    Background The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, 2015) states that a sedentary lifestyle is one of the major risk factors for obesity and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, physical activity is essential and it starts from a young age. Children have to be exposed to a variety of sports, games and activities. ACSM recommends 60 minutes daily of physical activity for children and adolescents. If children are unable to accumulate 60 minutes in day, they can begin with a lower duration and subsequently increasing the duration slowly as they progress over the months. The following chapters are written and designed by our experts in their special area of work and sport that will provide a deeper understanding and greater insight to sports and exercise in general, from a recreational perspective to a competitive level. Each chapter will reveal the history, background, basic rules of the sport, and how to implement modified games during PE lessons. The chapters also provide PE educators, coaches and parents with necessary tools to teach the sport.
      346  15
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Motion sensor outputs of children and adolescents walking and running to three treadmill speeds
    (University of Travnik, 2009) ;
    Wong, Patricia
    ;
    ;
    Tan, Swee Kheng
    ;
    Kunalan, C. (Canagasabai)
    ;
    Chiang, Jasson
    The study examined the motion sensor outputs of Singaporean children and adolescents of both sexes to walking and running on a motorized treadmill (Quinton Series 90) under controlled laboratory conditions. 58 youths of normal body mass (N=58, age: 13.2±3.0 y; height: 1.53±0.02 m; body mass: 45.5±14.2 kg; BMI: 18.8± 3.0 kg/m2; Tanner rating: 2.5±1.3) were recruited for the study. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT 1 M) activity (ActiCounts in counts/min) and step rate (ActiSteps in steps/min) and pedometer (Omron HJ 005-E) step rate (PedoSteps in steps/min), oxygen uptake (in ml/kg/min) and heart rate (in bpm) were obtained from 5-minutes stages of 0 % gradient of treadmill walking at 4 km/hr and running at 6 km/hr and 8 km/hr. Walking at 4 km/hr was estimated at 4.0-6.0 METs, whilst running at 6 km/hr and 8 km/hr was estimated at 6.3-8.6 and 10.0-11.4 METs, respectively. Motion sensor outputs increased significantly with treadmill speeds (76-101 % for ActiCounts; 22-24 % for ActiSteps and18-25 % for PedoSteps, all p<0.01) as did oxygen uptake (48-55 %) and heart rate (27-28 %) but there was no sex difference in activity or step rate or physiological responses (p>0.01). No meaningful relationships were obtained between accelerometer activity rate and oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was acceptable agreement between accelerometer and pedometer step rate for the walking and running on the treadmill but the difference between accelerometer and pedometer step rate was smallest at a treadmill running speed of 6 km/hr. These results show that accelerometer and pedometer step rates are useful and suitable measurements of physical activity involving walking and running among Singaporean children and adolescents of normal body mass. Further investigations are necessary to fully exploit the use of accelerometer data in physical activity research among young people.
      405  229
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Effects of soy milk ingestion on anaerobic performance and physiological measures
    (2021) ;
    Pan, Shi Yu
    ;
    Ng, Yew Cheo
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of soy protein supplementation to improve performance and recovery during repeated running anaerobic sprint test (RAST). Ten males (age: 23.2 ± 1.23 yrs) performed two RAST with a soy milk intervention (SOY; 500 mL soy milk + 4 g stevia sweetener) and a placebo control (CON; 500 mL water + 4 g stevia sweetener) over 7 days. The RAST consisted of six 35-m sprints with a 10-sec recovery between each sprint. The total effort time (sec) was not significant between SOY (32.77 ± 1.23) and CON (33.28 ± 1.71) (P = 0.179). Fatigue index in SOY (31.64 ± 5.20) was significantly lower than CON (37.30 ± 5.70) (P = 0.023). Mean power (Watts) (Soy: 499.27 ± 62.72, Con: 486.39 ± 86.13) (P = 0.410), relative power (Watts) (Soy: 9.34 ± 1.02, Con: 9.55 ± 1.51) (P = 0.461), peak blood lactate (mmol·L-1) (Soy: 9.75 ± 1.61, Con: 10.24 ± 1.90) (P = 0.488), and peak blood glucose (mmol·L-1) (Soy: 23.94 ± 3.90, Con: 25.09 ± 4.61) (P = 0.497) between trials were not significant. Peak blood lactate (r = -0.654) and glucose (r = -0.662) concentrations were inversely associated with mean power in the SOY trial. The results indicate that the soy milk intervention in RAST significantly lowered the fatigue index and, therefore, may be used to enhance sports performance involving anaerobic activities.
      446  495
  • Publication
    Open Access
    An "Eye in the sky"
    (National Institute of Education (Singapore), 2017) ;
    Browne, Thomas
      45  51
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Body composition: Assessment, components, and hydration
    (2010) ;
    Gupta, N.
    ;
    Govindaswamy, V. V.
    In the modern era, health professional including scientists. health workers and researchers from different disciplines are focusing on body composition in the area of assessments. physiology. psychology. nutrition, etc. These valuable information garnered from research. and clinical practices is becoming an important factor in determining obesity such as formulation of an exercise programme and diet regiment. psychological profiles based on body image, nutritional status. functional capacity and risk for chronic diseases. Body composition is necessary for an individual to maintain proper work capacity, muscular strength. and the ability to perform daily tasks such as walking and lifting. Negative changes in body composition can lead to decline in physical performance capabilities of the individual. Currently there are number of indirect ways to assess body composition such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry ( DEXA), under water weighing. body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio ( WHR). bioelectric impedance ( BIA). skin fold measurement, circumference and girth measurements. These methods differ in accuracy and precision. Body composition is also affected by factors like hydration. This chapter focuses on the components of body composition and the various body composition techniques. In addition. it discusses the effects of hydration status on body composition.
      149  146
  • Publication
    Open Access
    The effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) on academic self-confidence and generic skills of graduate students in health-related fitness and wellness in Singapore
    (2010)
    Chin, Ming-Kai
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    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
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    ; ;
    Wong, Patricia
    This study examined the effectiveness of Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach on enhancing graduate in-service physical education teachers' academic self-confidence, leadership and initiation. academic affect, and information processmg competence. A pre-test/post-test with quasi-experimental design was used. 27 graduate in-service physical education teachers from the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in a health-related and wellness module participated in this study. The intervention comprised teaching participants using a PBL approach for 12 teaching weeks. Measuring scales of high validity and reliability were developed for this study to measure participants' self-concept, leadership, academic affect and their information processing competence. Averaged post-test scores in most of generic skill aspects ( 8 out of II) were significantly higher than pre-test scores. Students had in general more positive attitudes toward the module and themselves at post- test than they had at pre-test. The results strongly support that teaching using a PBL approach is beneficial to both students' generic skill development and academic affect to teaching and learning.
      259  134
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Obesity prevention in Singapore: Collaborative efforts among government, health professionals and the community
    (2010)
    Nidhi Gupta
    ;
    Chin, Ming-Kai
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    Yang, Jingzhen
    ;
    ; ;
    Girandola, Robert N.
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    Edginton, Christopher R.
    ;
    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions over the past 10 years. As countries become more affluent, their populations tend to adopt caloric balance problems that have plagued the USA and Western Europe. Obesity is classified as the second most serious reversible health problem, after smoking in the world today. The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases is well documented. The increase in obesity in Asian countries is remarkable. In 2004, the prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Singapore increased upto 16% (high risk category: ≥ 27.5kg/m2) and prompted many forms of government action, encouraging collaboration between businesses, the educational system and non-governmental organizations. This paper reviews the rise of obesity in Singapore and some of the approaches being implemented to address this concern. Singapore, a multiethnic country, with Chinese, Indian and Malay populations, has to address diversity in customs, diet and religions to combat obesity. The collaborative efforts of various organizations such as the Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) have successfully improved the health status of Singaporeans. The fact that the rise in obesity in Singapore is lower than in other neighboring Asian countries attests to the partial success of the collaborative efforts.
      2762  17781
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Sprint kayaking performance enhancement by isometric strength training inclusion: A randomized controlled trial
    (2021)
    Lum, Danny Wan Yin
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    Barbosa, Tiago M.
    ;
    Performing isometric strength training (IST) can enhance various sports performance. This study compared the effects of including IST on sprint kayaking performance as compared to traditional strength training. Twenty sprint kayaking athletes (age 22 ± 4 year, stature 1.71 ± 0.09 m, body mass 72.0 ± 11.4 kg) performed a 200-m kayak ergometer time trial (200mTT), isometric squat (IsoSqT), isometric bench press (IsoPress) and isometric prone bench pull (IsoPull) during the pre- and post-tests. Athletes were randomly assigned to either traditional strength training (TRAD) or IST group. Both groups performed a similar strength training program twice a week for six weeks. However, half the volume for squat, bench press and prone bench pull were replaced by IsoSqT, IsoPress and IsoPull, respectively, for the IST group. IsoSqT was performed at 90° knee angle, while IsoPress and IsoPull were performed at 90° and 120° elbow angles, respectively. Each isometric contraction was performed with maximum intensity and sustained for three seconds. A significant main time effect was observed for 200mTT (p < 0.001, ƞ2p = 0.68) and all isometric strength measures (p = 0.001–0.032, ƞ2p = 0.24–0.76) except rate of force development at 0–90 ms (RFD90) obtained from IsoSqT120 and IsoPress90. A group main effect was observed in RFD90 obtained from IsoSqT120 and IsoPull120 (p = 0.003–0.004, ƞ2p = 0.37–0.39). Time x Group interaction was observed for 200mTT (p = 0.027, ƞ2p = 0.68), peak force obtained from IsoSqT90, IsoPress90, and IsoPull120 (p = 0.004–0.006, ƞ2p = 0.36–0.38) and RFD90 obtained from IsoSqT120 and IsoPull120 (p = 0.012–0.015, ƞ2p = 0.28–0.30). Inclusion of IST resulted in greater improvement for sprint kayaking and strength performances then TRAD alone.
    WOS© Citations 8Scopus© Citations 10  74  88
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Comparing the effects of plyometric and isometric strength training on dynamic and isometric force-time characteristics
    (2022)
    Lum, Danny Wan Yin
    ;
    Comfort, Paul
    ;
    Barbosa, Tiago M.
    ;
    The purpose of the study was to compare the change in dynamic and isometric force-time characteristics after plyometric (PLYO) or isometric strength training (ISO). Twenty-two endurance runners (age = 37 ± 6 years,stature = 1.71 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 62.7 ± 8.6 kg, weekly mileage = 47.3 ± 10.8 km) performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) test during pre- and post-tests. They were then randomly assigned to either PLYO or ISO group and completed 12 sessions of intervention over six weeks. The PLYO included drop jump, single leg bounding and split jump, and the ISO included IMTP and isometric ankle plantar flexion. Significant and large time x group interactions were observed for CMJ countermovement depth (P = 0.037, ƞ²p = 0.21) and IMTP and relative peak force (PF) (P = 0.030, ƞ²p = 0.22). Significant and large main effects for time were observed in CMJ height, peak power, propulsive phase duration, countermovement depth, reactive strength index modified, IMTP PF and relative PF (P < 0.05, 0.20 ≤ ƞ²p ≤ 0.65). Effect for time showed small improvement in CMJ height for both PLYO (P < 0.001, d = 0.48) and ISO (P = 0.009, d = 0.47), small improvement in CMJ PP in PLYO (P = 0.020, d = 0.21), large increase in countermovement depth (P = 0.004, d = 1.02) and IMTP relative PF (P < 0.001, d = 0.87), and moderate increase in propulsive phase duration (P = 0.038, d = 0.65) and IMTP PF (P < 0.001, d = 0.55) in ISO. There were large differences between groups for percentage change in countermovement depth (P = 0.003, d = 0.96) and IMTP relative PF (P = 0.047, d = 0.90). In conclusion, both PLYO and ISO improved CMJ jump height via different mechanisms, while only ISO resulted in improved IMTP PF and relative PF.
    WOS© Citations 6  51
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Arm-pull thrust in human swimming and the effect of post-activation potentiation
    (2020)
    Barbosa, Tiago M.
    ;
    Yam, Jia Wen
    ;
    Lum, Danny Wan Yin
    ;
    ;
    Marinho, Daniel A.
    The aim of this study was to analyse the front-crawl arm-pull kinetics and kinematics, comparing it before and after post-activation potentiation (PAP), and the associations between variables describing of the arm-pull kinetics. Twelve male competitive swimmers were randomly assigned to perform two different warm-ups in a crossover manner: (i) non-PAP (control condition); and (ii) PAP (experimental condition). PAP consisted of 2 × 5 arm-pulls with resistance bands by both upper-limbs. Eight minutes later, participants underwent a 25 m all-out trial in front-crawl arm-pull. Kinetics (i.e., peak thrust, mean thrust and thrust-time integral) and kinematics (i.e., speed and speed fluctuation) were collected by an in-house customised system composed of differential pressure sensors, speedo-meter and underwater camera. There was a significant and large improvement of the arm-pull kinetics after completing the warm-up with PAP sets (0.010 < P < 0.054, 0.50 < d < 0.74). There were non-significant and small effects of PAP on speed (P = 0.307, d = 0.18) and speed fluctuation (P = 0.498, d = 0.04). Correlation coefficients among kinetic variables were significant with large associations (0.51 < R < 0.90, 0.001 < P < 0.088). In conclusion, warm-ups including PAP conditioning sets elicit a large improvement in the thrust, but with small improvement in performance. Variables used to characterise thrust are strongly correlated and hence can be used interchangeably.
    WOS© Citations 18Scopus© Citations 20  179  117