Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Embargo
    Does experience matter? Measuring self-efficacy in preservice and in-service early childhood educators using the teachers’ sense of efficacy scale
    (Springer, 2023)
    Chan, Wei Teng
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    Bull, Rebecca
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    This study aimed to examine (1) the psychometric properties of The Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) in early childhood (EC) preservice (N = 202) and in-service (N = 182) teachers, and (2) the effect of teaching experience on efficacy beliefs. Findings indicated that EC teachers’ efficacy beliefs were best represented by a bifactor model (i.e., one general and three specific factors); teachers generally perceived their capabilities in teaching at a more general level rather than specific to different classroom functions. Teaching experience had a significant effect on efficacy beliefs for preservice but not for in-service teachers. This study fills a gap in our understanding of EC teachers’ sense of efficacy by providing empirical evidence on the structure of efficacy beliefs and the effect of teaching experience on efficacy beliefs in preservice and in-service EC teachers. In this study, a new efficacy factor named Responsive Teaching emerged, capturing an element of in-service EC teachers’ perceptions of their capabilities that may be specific to the EC setting. Findings regarding the effects of experience on preservice EC teachers’ sense of efficacy may provide guidance on targeted instruction to increase sense of efficacy.
      26  1
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Validation of the Child Behavior Rating Scale (CBRS) using multilevel factor analysis
    (2021)
    Chan, Wei Teng
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    Bull, Rebecca
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    ; ;
    Behavioral regulation supports children to control their cognitive and emotional skills and participate fully in classroom learning and interactions. Teacher ratings are frequently used to collect data but are highly susceptible to the teacher’s response bias, meaning much child level variance is attributable to the teacher level. Multilevel modeling techniques are commonly used to assess the psychometric properties of measures at different levels by disaggregating within- and between-teacher variation in student behaviors. In this study, we attempt to identify the factor structure at each level using teacher ratings on the Child Behavior Rating Scale (CBRS). The sample of 1,375 preschool children (49.2% males) was drawn from a longitudinal study in Singapore. The teacher ratings of these children were collected at three time points (average age at Time 1 was 58.5 months, Time 2 was 69.8 months, and Time 3 was 80.9 months). Using multilevel exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, a three-factor model at the within level and a two-factor model at the between level best fit the data. At the within level, the three factors were identified as basic interpersonal skills, advanced interpersonal skills, and learning-related social skills. The three factors showed good internal consistency and differential correlates. The two factors at the between level may be related to teacher and classroom characteristics. This study provides empirical support for (a) differential factor structures of CBRS at the within and between levels; and (b) two distinct interpersonal skills. Future studies should aim at exploring the sources of between level variability.
    WOS© Citations 2Scopus© Citations 2  112  358
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Developing and piloting a computerized adaptive test for a culturally appropriate measure of adaptive behavior
    Culturally bounded in nature, adaptive behavior is the degree to which a person meets the requirements of personal independence and social responsibilities. This study aimed to develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) of a culturally appropriate adaptive behavior measure (i.e., the Activities and Participation Rating Scale [APRS]) in the Singapore context for children aged 7 to 12 years, that is, the CAT-APRS-Primary. In Study 1, an item bank consisting of 310 adaptive skills was developed and piloted among 56 caregivers. In Study 2, the refined 310 items were calibrated using Rasch analysis among 352 caregivers. After the removal of five poor items based on the Rasch analysis, the finalized 305 items were used for the CAT development, with these items showing good Rasch person and item fit statistics. Preliminary utility of the CAT-APRS-Primary was established, with participants completing 24 items on average. Limitations and implications for future research were discussed.
    WOS© Citations 2Scopus© Citations 2  286  186
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Validity studies of a parent-completed social-emotional measure in a representative sample in China
    (2021)
    Xie, Huichao
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    Bian, Xiaoyan
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    Wang, Ruoshui
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    Chen, Chieh-Yu
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    Anunciacao, Luis
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    Chai, Zhen
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    Song, Wei
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    Li, Yan
    In China, more than 90% of individuals in need are not receiving mental health services, partially because of the scarcity of valid and reliable developmental tools. This project aimed to adapt and validate a parent-completed screening tool, the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, Second Edition (ASQ:SE-2), to fill in this gap. First, a national representative sample of 2,830 children was accessed to establish cutoff scores. Results from a confirmatory multidimensionality item response theory analysis supported a two-factor structure with this sample. Evidence for item response theory reliabilities and internal consistency were also examined. The second study compared the Chinese ASQ:SE-2 with three convergent measures in a regional sample. Chinese ASQ:SE-2 total scores significantly correlated with most of the domain and total scores on the convergent measures. The classification agreement achieved a maximum of 85%. This project supports the use of the ASQ:SE-2 in the Chinese population, enhancing its clinical utility.
    WOS© Citations 2Scopus© Citations 2  85  137
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Language experience and bilingual children's heritage language learning
    (2022) ; ;
    Roodra Veera
    Both language input and output are important to child language learners’ heritage language development. Nevertheless, existing studies mainly focus on language input, leaving the significance of language output underexplored. The current study assessed 201 kindergarteners’ Mandarin skills (i.e., receptive vocabulary, receptive grammar, and verbal fluency) in Singapore, and investigated the influence of children’s Mandarin experience, and specifically output, on these Mandarin skills. The results based on multilevel models reveal that children’s Mandarin experience plays a crucial role in the three Mandarin skills, after controlling for children’s gender, language aptitude, and English proficiency. Specifically, children’s onset age of Mandarin speaking and the number of places where they used Mandarin alone significantly predict all the Mandarin skills.
    WOS© Citations 6  112  79
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Construct, convergent and discriminant validity of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale for Singapore
    Family quality of life (FQoL) constitutes an important aspect of early intervention. However, the culture bound nature of this construct necessitates validation of FQoL measures when being used in a culture different from the one in which they were developed. This study sought to understand the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Beach Center FQoL (BCFQoL) scale in Singapore. Data from 307 caregivers of children in an early intervention programme were used. These caregivers completed the BCFQoL scale and external validity measures of family outcomes, psychological distress and life situation. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations were used to examine the factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the BCFQoL scale. Results indicated support for five FQoL dimensions and a higher-order FQoL factor. External convergent and discriminant validity, as well as internal statistical discriminant validity of the individual BCFQoL dimensions were supported. Despite evidence of internal statistical discriminant validity, there was little variation in the strength of the relationships between individual BCFQoL dimensions and the various external validity measures. Overall, the results of this study support the use of the BCFQoL scale as a valid measure of FQoL in Singapore.
    WOS© Citations 12Scopus© Citations 11  339  188
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Cross-cultural considerations for adapting valid psychoeducational assessments
    (Springer, 2022) ;
    Accurate measurement of children’s understanding and learning is essential for educational practice – in order to identify individual needs, evaluate pedagogical effects, and ultimately inform broader education policy. Much research and practice in child learning and development is predicated on accurate measurement. However, most common measurement instruments (tests, surveys) have been developed and validated in Western contexts. While these measures may be broadly appropriate for use in Singapore, they may not exhibit the same measurement properties and validity as reported in other contexts and may require modification. This chapter will thus focus on the need for locally validated and culturally appropriate measures in Singapore and the factors that may influence the development and adaptation of such measures. Specifically, this chapter will consider how the unique context of Singapore differs from Western contexts and how these contextual factors relate to and can inform the adaptation and use of different types of measurement instruments: self- and other-report inventories, norm-referenced standardised tests, and computerised adaptive tests (CATs). For example, norm-referenced measures which seek to compare a child to his or her peers require a valid frame of reference which is not necessarily provided by internationally standardised and normed measures, while CATs allow for more individualised and efficient testing experiences. In summary, this chapter will use concrete examples of test adaptation and development as well as evaluations of the measurement properties of internationally validated measures to highlight issues regarding cross-cultural measurement in the context of childhood development in Singapore. Implications for practitioners will be highlighted.
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  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Screening for executive function difficulties: An evaluation of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-2nd Edition Screener, Teacher Report (BRIEF2-TS)
    (2023) ; ;
    Bull, Rebecca
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    ; ;
    Chan, Wei Teng
    Executive functions (EFs) correlate positively with many developmental outcomes, and ecologically valid measures of EFs may be more predictive of some outcomes than performance-based measures. Accordingly, there is a need to evaluate short EF rating scales, such as the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-2nd Edition Screener, Teacher Report (BRIEF2-TS). Data from 1,322 kindergarten children in Singapore (50% girls; 61.3% Chinese, 10.6% Malay, 16.3% Indian, 4.0% other ethnicity, and 7.8% did not report their ethnicity), followed for 3 years, were used to examine the multilevel factor structure, gender and longitudinal invariance, reliability, and concurrent and predictive validity of BRIEF2-TS scores. Results indicated a two-factor within-level structure (11 items; cognitive and emotional–behavioral regulation) that was at least partially invariant across gender and time. Concurrent validity with direct EF measures and ratings of self-regulation, and predictive validity for socioemotional and academic skills were good. Overall, BRIEF2-TS scores showed evidence for good validity and reliability. Future research should consider correlates of the between-level structure and further consider structure and validity in clinical samples. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
    Scopus© Citations 2  79
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Construct validity of the family outcomes survey: Revised expanded helpfulness scale
    (2021) ;
    Yang, Xueyan
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    Xie, Huichao
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    ;
    This paper compares conceptions of teacher quality in two education systems – Singapore and Hong Kong – that consistently perform well in international assessments of student achievement. Both systems constantly refresh their expectations of teacher competencies, with recent iterations, which offer a just-in-time opportunity to learn from how they now conceptualise quality teaching. This paper will provide the context surrounding each jurisdiction’s education system, how each views teacher quality, and how each has rethought the concepts of teacher quality according to their unique contextual circumstance. The paper then compares these concepts articulated and enacted by each country, linking these to the wider international literature and scholarship in order to glean insights into what teacher quality is or how it might be reconceptualised to meet future needs.
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