Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Southeast Asia’s dynamic sand trade and the need for better data
    (Elsevier, 2024)
    Yuen, Kai Wan
    ;
    Das, Diganta
    ;
    Tran, Dung Duc
    ;

    Sand is a vital resource for modern structures but there is limited information on the scale of sand mining or what happens to the sand after it was mined. Here, we focus on Southeast Asia (SEA) as rising affluence and population growth has turned the region into a global sand mining hotspot. We estimated the sand extraction budget in each Southeast Asian country and quantified the volume sand that was exported and imported. In addition, the destinations in which the sand was exported to were detailed and we also clarified the origins of the imported sand. Our analysis revealed that locally mined sand was mostly consumed domestically, and sand was imported if supply was insufficient. In addition, the sand trade in SEA was also predominantly regional. Unfortunately, our understanding of the sand trade in SEA was hampered by limited and inconsistent data. For example, missing data meant that production and trade flows were unavailable for some years. The volume of sand traded between each country was also uncertain due to the mismatch of trade data. Additional information on the type of sand traded was also lacking. The reliability and credibility of existing data should be strengthened to improve material accounting.

      4
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    A deep learning framework to map riverbed sand mining budgets in large tropical deltas
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023)
    Suno Kumar
    ;
    ;
    Tran, Dung Duc
    ;
    Wang, Jinyu
    ;
    Ho, Huu Loc
    ;
    Feng, Lian
    ;
    Sameh, A. Kantoush
    ;
    Van Binh, Doan
    ;
    Li, Dongfeng
    ;
    Switzer, Adam D.

    Rapid urbanization has dramatically increased the demand for river sand, leading to soaring sand extraction rates that often exceed natural replenishment in many rivers globally. However, our understanding of the geomorphic and social-ecological impacts arising from Sand Mining (SM) remains limited, primarily due to insufficient data on sand extraction rates. Conventionally, bathymetry surveys and compilation of declared amounts have been used to quantify SM budgets, but they are often costly and laborious, or result in inaccurate quantification. Here, for the first time, we developed a Remote Sensing (RS)-based Deep Learning (DL) framework to map SM activities and budgets in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD), a global SM hotspot. We trained a near real-time object detection system to identify three boat classes in Sentinel-1 imagery: Barge with Crane (BC), Sand Transport Boat (STB), and other boats. Our DL model achieved a 96.1% Mean Average Precision (mAP) across all classes and 98.4% for the BC class, used in creating an SM boat density map at an Intersection over Union (IoU) threshold of 0.50. Applying this model to Sentinel-1, 256,647 boats were detected in the VMD between 2014–2022, of which 17.4% were BC. Subsequently, the annual SM budget was estimated by correlating it with a recent riverbed incision map. Our results showed that, between 2015–2022, about 366 Mm3 of sand has been extracted across the VMD. The annual budget has progressively increased from 34.92 Mm3 in 2015 to 53.25 Mm3 in 2022 (by 52%), with an annual increment of around 2.79 Mm3. At the provincial-scale, Dong Thap, An Giang, Vinh Long, Tien Giang, and Can Tho were the locations of intensive mining, accounting for 89.20% of the total extracted volume in the VMD. Finally, our estimated budgets were validated with previous research that yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99% (with bias of 2.65%). The automatic DL framework developed in this study to quantify SM budgets has a high potential to be applied to other deltas worldwide also facing intensive SM.

    Scopus© Citations 2  3
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Extent of saltwater intrusion and freshwater exploitability in the coastal Vietnamese Mekong Delta assessed by gauging records and numerical simulations
    (Elsevier, 2024)
    Tran, Dung Duc
    ;
    Pham, Thi Bich Thuc
    ;
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    Phan, Thi Thanh Hang
    ;
    Duong, Ba Man
    ;
    Wang, Jingyu

    Climate change-driven sea level rise has intensified salinity intrusion (SI) in deltas worldwide, posing significant threats to the exploitation of freshwater resources. In the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD), the third largest delta globally, SI is a recurring challenge along the coastline, degrading freshwater resources for agricultural and domestic use and affecting socio-economic development. In this paper, we investigate the spatiotemporal extent of salinity intrusion in the Ben Tre Province, the hotspot of salinity disaster within the VMD. Long-term salinity monitoring data (25 years from 1996 to 2020) has been analyzed, and a 1D (Mike 11) coupled with 3D hydrodynamic model (Mike 3) was developed. Three scenarios were used to investigate the freshwater resources exploitation: (i) the year of investigation (2021), (ii) 2021 to 2030 climate change impacts, considering different annual exceedance probability of the upstream Mekong discharge (i.e., average flow, relatively low, low and very low), and (iii) extreme salinity intrusion (i.e., the 2016 condition). Our results indicated that salinity patterns are well-stratified at the beginning and end of the dry season but well-mixed during the middle period. Furthermore, over the last 25 years, SI has progressively increased and started earlier in the dry season. The modeling scenarios for SI have also revealed a growing complexity in the exploitation of freshwater resources, highlighting challenges related to timing, depth, and geographical location. The exceedance probability scenarios disclosed higher and deeper salinity intrusion along the channel in VMD, ranging from 50 % to 95 %. This poses significant limitations on the feasibility of freshwater exploitation throughout the Ben Tre Province. Under the current trajectory of climate change, the 2030 scenario anticipates salinity intrusion reaching further inland from the 2021 scenario. This is likely to exacerbate the existing challenges in freshwater resource exploitation, even with comprehensive water infrastructure. We, therefore, propose several management strategies to adapt to salinity intrusion: storing freshwater in main rivers, maintaining consistent operation of water infrastructure systems, and encouraging water-saving distribution and exploitation methods. Moreover, we also recommend supporting the development of new drought-tolerant crop patterns.

    Scopus© Citations 2  15
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Dams in the Mekong: A comprehensive database, spatiotemporal distribution, and hydropower potentials
    (Copernicus Publications, 2024)
    Ang, Wei Jing
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    Pokhrel, Yadu
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    Tran, Dung Duc
    ;
    Loc, Ho Huu

    Dams have proliferated along the Mekong, spurred by energy demands from economic development and capital from private companies. Swift dam evolution has rendered many databases outdated, in which mismatches arise from differing compilation methods. Without a comprehensive database, up-to-date spatial assessment of dam growth is unavailable. Looking at future development, hydropower potential specifically within the Mekong remains to be systematically evaluated. In this paper, we offer (1) an open-access and unified database of 1055 dams, (2) a spatiotemporal analysis of dams on a sub-basin and country level from the 1980s to the post-2020s, and (3) a grid-based assessment of the theoretical basin-wide hydropower potential using present-day discharge from the CaMa-Flood model (2011–2015, 0.05°) and future discharge from the WaterGAP2 model used for ISIMIP2b (2021–2040, 0.5°). The dam count of 1055 is more than twice the largest existing database, with 608 hydropower dams generating a boom in hydropower capacity from 1242 MW in the 1980s to 69 199 MW post-2020s. While China had the largest capacity increase from the 2000s to the 2010s (+16 854 MW), Laos has the most planned dams and the highest projected growth post-2020s (+18 223 MW). Based on present-day discharge, we estimate a basin-wide hydropower potential of 1 334 683 MW, where Laos is the highest at 514 887 MW. Based on future discharge modeled with climate change, hydropower potential could grow to over 2 000 000 MW. Laos and China are the highest at around 900 000 MW each, together forming over 80 % of the total potential. Our database facilitates research on dam-induced hydrological and ecological alterations, while spatiotemporal analysis of hydropower capacity could illuminate the complex transboundary electricity trade. Through both spatiotemporal and hydropower potential evaluation, we address the current and future vulnerability of countries to dam construction, highlighting the need for better planning and management in the future hydropower hotspot Laos. The Mekong dam database is publicly available at https://doi.org/10.21979/N9/ACZIJN (Ang et al., 2023).

      7
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Dramatic decrease of flood frequency in the Mekong Delta due to river-bed mining and dyke construction
    (2020) ;
    Ho, Huu Loc
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    Tran, Dung Duc
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    Yang, Xiankun
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    Alcantara, Enner
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    Merino, Eder
    ;
    Song, Vu Hai
    Here we present a proof of concept evaluation of the impacts of riverbed-mining on river-wetland connectivity by analyzing the temporal trends of the flood frequencies in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD), whilst accounting for the effect of dyke constructions. We focus on the Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ), which is significant in terms of biodiversity and economic contribution to the VMD as it is one of the most important food baskets of Southeast Asia that depends on seasonal flooding. Our results indicate that the flood frequency in LXQ has decreased significantly over the past 20 years (1995-2015). Time-series analyses of water level data at Chau Doc, Tan Chau, and Can Tho stations confirmed that the overall descending trend is statistically significant (p-value<0.001 and tau ~0.1). However, the river discharge at Kratie showed no significant trend (p-value=0.98) over the same period. This indicates that the flood frequency is associated with the lowering of the riverbed (incision) other than climatic factors. The connectivity analysis also revealed a remarkable drop in the inundation duration after early 2000, which corresponds to the previous observations of the shifting shoreline of the VMD from construction to shrinking. Finally, regression and principal component analyses underpinned the strong causality between the riverbed-mining and the decreased seasonal flooding patterns in LXQ, whilst accounting for the effect of the dyke system over the last decades (R2=0.75). This study offers compelling evidences on the relationship between sand-mining in the river and the disrupted flood regimes in VMD. The reduction in water and sediments that is necessary for sustaining current rates of agricultural production in the long term would endanger the livelihoods of millions of VMD inhabitants.
    WOS© Citations 66Scopus© Citations 78  336  283
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Extent of illegal sand mining in the Mekong Delta
    (Nature Research, 2024)
    Yuen, Kai Wan
    ;
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    Tran, Dung Duc
    ;
    Loc, Ho Huu
    ;
    Feng, Lian
    ;
    Wang, Jingyu
    ;
    Gruel, Charles-Robin
    ;
    Switzer, Adam D.

    Sand is a vital ingredient for modern structures and to meet demand, a substantial volume of sand is extracted illegally from riverbeds globally. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta is one of the largest delta in Asia and it has a long history of riverbed sand mining. We quantified the illegal sand mining rate in this major sand mining hotspot, as the difference between the actual volume of sand mined and the allowable rate of sand extraction set by the provincial government. The volume of illegally mined sand decreased from 16.7 Mm3/yr in 2013 to 15.5 Mm3/yr in 2018-2020. An increase in the allowable rate of sand extraction from 11.5 Mm3/yr to 15.1 Mm3/yr reduced the volume of illegally mined sand. We recommend that scientific research should be conducted to assess the allowable rates of sand extraction and the volume of sand reserve.

    Scopus© Citations 2  4
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Mapping volumetric soil moisture in the Vietnamese Red River Delta using Landsat 8 images
    (2022)
    Ho, Huu Loc
    This study estimates the surface soil moisture content in a case study situated in the Vietnamese Red River Delta, using the Landsat 8 satellite images. The trapezoidal relationship between land surface temperature and vegetation index was used to obtain soil wetness indexes. A split-window algorithm was developed to overcome the missing of atmospheric data. The method was validated with ground truth across different land covers. The RMSE between the calculated and measured SMC ranges between 0.556 and 0.971 and varies across different types of land covers. The method is important to monitor SMC across large areas with limited surveyed data.
    WOS© Citations 1Scopus© Citations 1  252